Solecki, Thomas J. DC, DACBSP DACRB, ICSSD
Grzeszkowiak, Konrad DC, PAK, CES, PES, FMT, PMT
Kramer, Abby BS, PAK, CPT, FMT, PMT
Froberg, Collene BS, FMT
Kinesiology taping is a commonly used method to treat various conditions and aid in rehabilitation. Many research studies to date analyze the effects of kinesiology taping around the ankle joint. Kinesiology taping is proposed to: normalize muscular tone1; increase range of motion2; increase endurance3; and improve functional movement4.
Kinesiology taping is a relatively new technique, which differs from using standard white athletic tape. It contains elasticity and can be stretched up to 180% of its original length before applying to the skin.5 The tape then provides a constant pull or shear force to the skin. Kinesiology tape can be worn for several days and remain intact as it is air permeable and water resistant. Standard athletic tape can be restrictive while kinesiology taping can be therapeutically effective and useful following injury and rehabilitation.6 Dr. Kenzo Kase, founder of the kinesiology taping method, proposed the following mechanisms for the effects of kinesiology tape: 1. Altered muscle function by the tapes effects on weakened muscles, 2. Improved circulation of blood and lymph by eliminating tissue fluid or bleeding beneath the skin, 3. Decreased pain through neurological suppression, and 4. Repositioning of subluxed joints by relieving abnormal muscle tension, and helping to affect the function of fascia and muscle. A fifth mechanism has been suggested by Murray, which is that kinesiology tape increases proprioception through increased stimulation to cutaneous mechanoreceptors.7 8
The purpose of this study is to address the immediate and 48 hour effect of kinesiology taping on muscle strength, range of motion, functional movement, and endurance. It appears that only one study has addressed the effect of kinesiology tape on muscle tone, thus increasing functionality, which yielded no statically significant result.9 This could be potentially due limited stretch of the tape used (120%). Rocktape© kinesiology tape contains 180% stretch, which has been hypothesized to have a stronger effect on muscle tone and function. We have hypothesized that taping specific muscles, during a specific vector of movement may increase muscle response. To date, no research study to our knowledge has tested the validity of this hypothesis.
Participants: Twenty-one male and female gymnasts between the ages of 12 and 18 volunteered to participate in this study. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects and all subjects were eligible to participate. Criteria for participation included no current ankle injury that is being treated professionally or conservatively. Participants verbally acknowledged no current pain in bilateral lower extremities. No mentions of previous injury to lower extremities were assessed. No one was harmed during this experiment.
Test Procedures: The subjects were tested using manual muscle testing (MMT) of six muscles surrounding the ankle joint: tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior, fibularis longus and brevis, fibularis tertius, and gastrocnemius. All muscles were scaled on a 0-5 scale. The standard references for muscle testing evaluation are based on the original work of Kendall and Kendall, Muscles: Testing and Function.10 Ankle range of motion (active dorsiflexion) was measured weight bearing and non-weight bearing using a digital inclinometer. A functional squat was performed and knee valgosity was recorded and measured in degrees with software from Spark Motion. Ankle agility and neuromuscular control was assessed using the Shark Test.11 Subjects were then kinesiology taped to increase tone for any neurologically inhibited muscles found. All assessments were repeated and reevaluated immediately following specified taping protocols. All assessments were also reevaluated in a 48-hour follow-up assessment.
Manual Muscle Test: Manual muscle testing began with the technique created by Lovett in 1912. Muscle testing is a system for grading muscle strength and was used for disability evaluation in polio and other diseases by the Kendall’s in 1936 and was first published in 1949. Techniques for manual muscle testing were expanded upon outside of conditions like polio and are now used to diagnose and treat muscle inhibition. Dr. Goodheart, founder of applied kinesiology, introduced his method of manual muscle testing to the Chiropractic profession in 1964, which have been further developed by the International College of Applied Kinesiology (I.C.A.K.).12 In this study, manual muscles testing of 5 muscles surrounding the ankle were used to assess neurological facilitation or inhibition. The five muscles around the ankle were all tested bilaterally before taping, immediately after taping, and 48 hours following the initial assessments. Certified Professional Applied Kinesiologists through the ICAK performed all manual muscle testing.
To test the tibialis anterior the athlete was seated with the leg to be tested extended and neutral. The tester dorsiflexes and inverts the ankle, having the athlete resist fully against the testers hand. The testers stabilization hand was resting on the distal leg laterally, superior to the ankle while the testing hand cupped the medial foot.
|1. Tibialis Anterior Manual Muscle Test|
To test the tibialis posterior the athlete was seated with the leg to be tested extended and neutral. The tester plantar flexed and inverted the ankle, having the athlete resist fully against the testers hand. The testers stabilization hand was resting on the distal leg laterally, superior to the ankle while the testing hand cupped the medial foot.
|2. Tibialis Posterior Manual Muscle Test|
To test the fibularis longus and brevis muscles, the athlete was seated with the leg to be tested extended and neutral. The tester plantar flexed and everted the ankle, having the athlete resist fully against the testers hand. The testers stabilization hand was resting on the distal leg medially, superior to the ankle while the testing hand cupped the medial foot.
|3. Fibularis Longus/Brevis Manual Muscle|
To test the fibularis tertius the athlete was seated with the leg to be tested extended and neutral. The tester dorsiflexed and everted the ankle, having the athlete resist fully against the testers hand. The testers stabilization hand was resting on the distal leg medially, superior to the ankle while the testing hand cupped the medial foot.
|4. Fibularis Tertius Manual Muscle Test|
To test the gastrocnemius the athlete was seated with the leg to be tested extended and neutral. The tester bent the knee so the foot was off of the testing surface and plantar flexed the foot. The tester placed the stabilization hand on the athlete’s knee laterally and the testing hand cupping the calcaneal surface of the foot. The athlete resisted the testers pull which is posterior to anterior in a caudal direction.
|5. Gastrocnemius Manual Muscle Test|
Ankle range of motion was measured both weight bearing and non-weight bearing. To measure range of motion non-weight bearing the subjects started in a seated position and barefoot with the ankle to be tested extended and in neutral position. The inclinometer was placed on the dorsal surface of the foot and then zeroed. Upon starting the test the subject dorsiflexes the foot to maximal active dorsiflexion and the angle is measured. This measurement is repeated on the opposite leg. All measurements were taken before taping, immediately after tape application, and at a 48-hour follow up visit.
|6. Starting Position of ROM Testing Seated||7. Ending Position of ROM Testing Seated|
To measure weight bearing ankle range of motion the subjects stood on a flat surface barefoot with the feet shoulder width apart and hands resting on the hips. The inclinometer was placed vertically along the anterior surface of the tibia and then zeroed. Upon starting the test the subject dorsiflexed the ankle by performing a squat until maximal active dorsiflexion was achieved. The final angle at end range of motion was measured. This assessment was repeated on the opposite leg. All measurements were taken before taping, immediately after tape application, and at a 48-hour follow up visit.
|8. Starting Position of ROM Testing Standing||9. Ending Position of ROM Standing|
Functional Squat Assessment:
Athletes were instructed to stand barefoot with feet comfortably shoulder width apart with hands on hips. Athletes performed a squat passed 90 degree of knee flexion. Athletes were video recorded using an IPad© 3 with motion analysis software by Spark Motion©. Athletes were recorded prior to kinesiology taping, immediately post kinesiology taping, and 48 hours after kinesiology taping. Analysis of squat was done using Spark Motion© software. Bilateral knee valgosity was measured in degrees at 90 degrees of knee flexion during all three squats in all three videos.
|10. Beginning of Over Head Squat||11. Ending Position of Over Head Squat|
Shark Skill Test:
The Shark Skill Test was performed as described by Michael Clark, DPT in NASM’s Essentials of Sports Performance Training. The test is designed to assess lower-extremity agility and neuromuscular control. Increased agility and neuromuscular control leads to improved function and increased endurance. The athlete was positioned in the center box of a grid, with hands on hips and standing on one leg barefoot. The athlete was instructed to hop to each box starting from their top left, always returning to the center box, only hopping into each box once. The athlete performed one practice run through the boxes with each foot. The athlete was then timed while performing the test one time for each leg. .01 seconds were added for each of the following deductions when they occurred each time: non-hopping leg touches ground; hands come off hips; foot goes into wrong square; foot does not return to center square. Athlete repeated same procedure after being kinesiology taped. 48 hours after being taped, athletes performed the same Shark Skill Test procedure with no initial practice trial.
|12. Beginning of Shark Skill Test||13. First Box Jump of Shark Skill Test|
Kinesiology Taping Procedure:
Kinesiology tape was applied towards specific muscles in a specific vector of movement. The specific vector of movement corresponded to the facilitation of
that specific muscle as demonstrated by a manual muscle test described by Kendall. Kinesiology taping was administered by practitioners certified in
Fascial Movement Taping (FMT)© and Performance Movement Taping (PMT)©. This method of movement taping consists of the athlete maximally stretching the
specified muscle that is to be taped. Tape is then applied from insertion of the muscle to the origin of the muscle as the athlete maximally contracts the
specified muscle. Kinesiology taping was applied to only the muscle(s) that demonstrated ⅘ MMT. If no muscles demonstrated a ⅘ MMT, posterior tibialis was
For the gastrocnemius muscle kinesiology tape application, the athlete’s position was prone. The base of the kinesiology tape was applied to the dorsal
surface of the base of the calcaneus with no tension as the ankle in full dorsiflexion. The tape was then rolled out with 25% stretch over the path of the
Achilles tendon and up the middle of the gastrocnemius muscle belly, ending inferior to the popliteal fossa. While the tape was rolled out, the athlete
moved the ankle into maximal plantar flexion, activating the gastrocnemius muscle, along with the rest of the triceps surae complex.
|14. Beginning of Gastrocnemius Taping||15. Taping of Gastrocnemius with Movement||16. Finished Taping of Gastrocnemius|
For the fibularis longus and brevis muscle kinesiology tape application, the athlete’s position was seated. The base of the kinesiology tape was applied to the plantar surface of the base of the 1st metatarsal with no tension, as the ankle was plantar flexed and inverted. Tape was then rolled out with 25% stretch over the path of the fibularis longus tendon, passing behind the lateral malleolus and ending on the fibular head. While the tape was rolled out, the athlete moved the ankle into the plantar flexed and everted position activating the fibularis longus and brevis muscles.
|17. Beginning of Fibularis Longus/Brevis||18. Taping Fibularis Longus/Brevis with Movement|
|19. Continued Taping of Fibularis Longus/Brevis||20. Finished Taping of Fibularis Longus/Brevis|
For the fibularis tertius muscle kinesiology tape application, the athlete’s position was seated. The base of the kinesiology tape was applied to the dorsal surface of the foot on the fifth metatarsal with no tension, as the ankle was dorsiflexed and inverted. The tape was then rolled out with 25% stretch over the path of the fibularis tertius tendon, passing anterior to the lateral malleolus and ending on the fibular head. While the tape was rolled out, the athlete moved the ankle into the dorsiflexed and everted position activating the fibularis tertius muscle.
|21. Beginning Taping of Fibularis Tertius||22. Taping of Fibularis Tertius with Movement|
|23. Finished Taping of Fibularis Tertius|
For the tibialis anterior muscle kinesiology tape application, the athlete’s position was seated. The base of the kinesiology tape was applied to the base of the 1st metatarsal head with no tension, as the ankle was in the plantar flexed and everted position. The tape was then rolled out with 25% stretch over the path of the tibialis anterior muscle crossing over to the lateral leg and ending near the fibular head. While the tape was rolled out, the athlete moved the ankle into the dorsiflexed and inverted position activating the tibialis anterior muscle.
|24. Beginning of Tibialis Anterior Taping||25. Taping of Tibialis Anterior with Movement|
|26. Finished Tibialis Anterior Taping|
For the tibialis posterior muscle kinesiology tape application, the athlete’s position was seated. The base of the kinesiology tape was applied to the base of the 5th metatarsal for added stabilization with no tension, as the ankle was in the plantar flexed and everted position. The tape was then rolled out with 25% stretch over the path of the tibialis posterior muscle along the medial border of the tibia just distal to the knee. While the tape was rolled out, the athlete moved the ankle into the plantar flexed and inverted position activating the tibialis posterior muscle.
|27. Beginning of Tibialis Posterior Taping||28. Taping of Tibialis Posterior with Movement|
|29. Taping Tibialis Posterior with Movement||30. Finished Taping of Tibialis Posterior|
Immediate Results Post Taping
16 out of 21 subjects were found to have muscle(s) demonstrating a 4/5 MMT. All 4/5 inhibited muscles that were taped demonstrated facilitation to a 5/5 MMT post taping. 4 out 21 subjects originally demonstrated a 5/5 MMT in all ankle muscles bilaterally. Post taping of posterior tibialis muscles bilaterally demonstrated to maintain a 5/5 MMT. Left and right non weight bearing ROM both resulted in a 0.58 P value post taping for a 5 degree decrease in ROM. Left weight bearing ROM resulted in a 0.66 P value and right weight bearing ROM resulted in a 0.68 P value for a 5 degree decrease in ROM. Left Shark skill test resulted in a 0.35 P value and right Shark skill test resulted in a 0.44 P value. Left squat knee angle assessment resulted in a 0.57 P value and the right squat angle assessment resulted in a 0.59 P value.
|31. Resulted P-Values From Performed Functional Tests After Tape Application|
48-Hour Follow Up Post Taping
All 16 out of 21 subjects that originally demonstrated muscle(s) graded a 4/5 and that facilitated to 5/5 immediately post taping, demonstrated to maintain a 5/5 MMT 48 hours post taping. Left non-weight bearing ROM resulted in 0.62 P value and right non-weight bearing ROM resulted in a 0.65 P value. Left weight bearing ROM resulted in a 0.58 P value and right weight bearing ROM resulted in a 0.54 P value. Left Shark skill test resulted in a 0.31 P value and right Shark skill resulted in a 0.35 P value. Left squat angle assessment resulted in a 0.62 P value and the right squat angle assessment resulted in a 0.60 P value.
|32. Resulted P-Values of Performed Functional Tests upon 48-hour Follow Up|
In order to minimize any potential bias, we used a sample population that was near the same age range, activity level, and that performed similar movements through out the day and during their training. We also assessed our sample population at same time of day to limit daily activity variables. At no time during the study did any of the participants experience any discomfort or pain, either from the assessment, or from the taping application. Participants may have demonstrated a 4/5 MMT due to previous injury (not assessed), overuse injuries with no subjective measures (not assessed), and/or potential muscle imbalances due to compensation or improper biomechanics (not assessed).
The results of this study confirm that kinesiology taping did not decrease the subjects’ performance on any assessments. This agrees with the current literature on the topic of kinesiology taping.13 14 15
In the range of motion, shark skills test, and overhead functional squat assessment there was not a significant difference in the subjects’ performance before taping, after taping, and in the 48 hour follow up study. However, the athlete’s performance for these assessments were not diminished either.
The results for the MMT portion of the study were very significant. 16 of the 21 subjects demonstrated muscle(s) of 4/5 strength. All 16 of the subjects with muscle(s) of 4/5 strength, post taping demonstrated 5/5 strength of those muscle(s). During the 48-hour follow up assessment, all muscles that were taped demonstrated a maintained 5/5 strength with the MMT. The kinesiology tape, taped in the specific application as explained above to a muscle displaying a 4/5 MMT, demonstrated an increase in muscle tone and did not appear to have a negative effect subjectively or objectively in the surrounding musculature. This could prove to be a very effective technique to use for athlete rehabilitation and retraining of faulty firing patterns, as there were no negative effects from this taping technique.
4 out of the 21 subjects originally had all ankle muscles bilaterally test for 5/5 strength and tape was applied to the tibialis posterior muscle bilaterally to look for any change in the muscle facilitation. All of these subjects maintained 5/5 strength of the tibialis posterior muscle. This again demonstrates that the kinesiology tape did not provide a negative affect to muscles demonstrating 5/5 strength.
This effect can be explained by the elastic properties of kinesiology tape enhancing the function of muscle fibers and tendons. Myofascial units16 and muscle spindle fibers have the ability to act synergistically and antagonistically. Myofascial units are specialized mechanoreceptors at the musculotendinous junction. Ib afferent fibers are entangled within the myofascial unit and innervate it. The afferent fiber receptor depolarizes as weight and tension compresses the myofascial unit. This depolarization stimulates the Ib interneuron, which inhibits the corresponding alpha motor neuron that is normally stimulated by the neuromuscular spindle.17 Using kinesiology tape to decompress the weight on a myofascial unit by “lifting” the skin and affecting the fascia, may decrease depolarization of the Ib afferent fibers, decreasing stimulation of the Ib interneuron, allowing increased firing of the alpha motor neuron and facilitation of muscle fibers. Through these mechanisms by applying kinesiology tape (with tension) to a muscle, one can affect a muscle on a neurologic level. 18 One previous study found that kinesiology tape did not evoke this response, but was explained that their findings could be potentially due limited stretch of the tape used (120%). 19 Rocktape© kinesiology tape contains 180% stretch, which has been hypothesized to have a stronger effect on muscle tone and function. In this study, using kinesiology tape with a stronger adhesive and stretch has shown evidence in facilitation of muscles when they were specifically taped in the manor described above.
Two testers participated in this study, both certified in muscle testing through the International College of Applied Kinesiology. Both testers used the muscle testing technique from original work by Kendall and Kendall. When using a correct and specific technique, there are significantly less problems with inter-tester reliability.20
In further studies, it would be of interest to address hyper tonicity of muscles. Since the muscles are being facilitated, it would be important to note if the muscles are in a hypertonic or normotonic state while the tape is applied to the skin. Another issue to address would be how long the result of a 5/5 muscle lasts for. This study assessed muscle strength before taping, immediately after taping, and 48 hours later with the tape still applied to the skin. In further studies, one could examine subjects after the tape has been removed for muscle strength.
The results for non-weight bearing and weight bearing range of motion were not significant before and after taping. For some athletes the tape increased their range of motion. However, results for range of motion testing could be subjective for several reasons. In a further study for more accurate results, range of motion should be taken bilaterally 3 times and the scores averaged. This was not performed during this study in the interest of time, as the subjects were studied during their training hours. Results for ROM in the 48-hour follow up study were similar. The sample population used for the study may also have contributed to why statistical significance in range of motion was not observed. The sport of gymnastics requires extreme flexibility and potentially hypermobility. Because of this requirement, subjects may have already attained their maximal range of motion in the ankle mortise joint and were physically not able to gain further range of motion. The subject’s age may have been a factor as well. At such a young age, range of motion may be increased due to the natural occurrence of hypermobility in non-calcified joints. Again, the kinesiology tape did not significantly change ROM, however it did not negatively affect it either.
Results for the shark skills test were not statistically significant. No scores were necessarily diminished, and many of the subjects’ scores did improve, just not enough to show statistical significance. There is currently no normative baseline for the shark skills test. Therefore, in future studies there may be a better test, which could be used to assess muscular endurance. This test was solely used to measure the difference in endurance pre and post taping application. If scores improved, it could be implied that the tape helped with efficiency of muscle firing patterns, thus improving endurance. This improvement could also be due to the fact that for many of the subjects, it was their first time performing this assessment, so naturally each additional time the assessment is performed their score improved. In the 48 hour follow up many of the subjects scores also improved, however whether this improvement was due to the kinesiology tape or not remains unclear. It can be hypothesized that if the participants were re-taped every 48-72 hours, and were instructed to train with rehabilitation exercises for the ankle, that increased performance (decrease in time for the Sharks Skill Test) may be seen. A further study may be developed to explore this hypothesis.
Results from the overhead functional squat assessment were not statistically significant. It was noted to be rather difficult to get an accurate reading for measuring the angle of knee valgosity for the subject. In a further study it would be helpful to mark the points of interest on the subject before using the video analysis software. If the ASIS, patella, and talocrural joint were marked, one could expect a more accurate measure of knee valgosity. Also, in the interest of time these measurements were taken once before taping, after taping, and in the 48 hour follow up. For a more accurate reading it would be of interest to measure each knee angle 3 times and use the average of the 3 angles for assessment.
In future studies there are a few things to consider. When working with an athletic population, the subjects were very active over the 48 hours in whih the study took place. It is unclear at this time how that affected the outcome of the study, but one may note that the function of the kinesiology tape could have been affected as all of the subjects were training during the time of the study. As mentioned before, it would be of interest to look at the results from taping once the tape has been removed to see if the increase in muscle strength was sustained for a longer period of time without tape. This study addressed taping of individual muscles, however, one could examine other taping methods such as taping a functional movement instead of isolated muscles and that effect on specific assessments. Lastly, although for many assessments the results were not statistically significant, one could address feelings of confidence and stability. Other studies have demonstrated that even if the kinesiology tape does not change functional assessments, the subjects have increased sense of confidence, reassurance, and stability when tape is applied.21
Limits of this study include a small sample size (n=21) and a very specific population of young competitive gymnasts. While this was ideal to see how the kinesiology tape produced results in a specific population, it would be of interest to examine a larger sample size and population. Time was also a limitation, and an average of 3 assessments per type of assessment were not done. Having participants not be assessed during their training period may allow more time for multiple assessments.
Kinesiology tape showed no statistical functional changes positive or negative for effects on ankle range of motion, endurance, or an overhead squat. It would be worthwhile to study long-term effects (2 weeks or more) of kinesiology taping of muscles and introduction of rehabilitation exercises, to increase performance and endurance. In addition, it would be of interest to study different brands of kinesiology tape, with different amounts of stretch, in order to assess just how important the amount of built-in stretch in the tape is to a positive outcome. Kinesiology tape did provide very significant results for muscle strength via the manual muscle test. This displays that the kinesiology tape does impact muscle strength and would be a valuable tool to use when assessing subject’s muscle imbalances and facilitating rehabilitation. This study offers valuable information in how the use of kinesiology taping can help facilitate neurologically inhibited muscles, thus helping to aide in correction of imbalance and dysfunction.
All kinesiology tape was provided by Rocktape©
1610 Dell Ave
Campbell, CA 95008
Video Analysis software was provided by SparkMotion©
Digital Goniometer used was manufactured by Baseline©
Funding sources and conflicts of interest:
All kinesiology tape was provided by Rocktape©. Video Analysis software was provided by SparkMotion©.
1 Firth, Bridget L., Paul Dingley, Elizabeth R. Davies, Jeremy S. Lewis, and Caroline M. Alexander. “The Effect of Kinesiotape on Function, Pain, and Motoneuronal Excitability in Healthy People and People With Achilles Tendinopathy.” Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 20.6 (2010): 416-21. Print.
2 Chang HY, Chou KY, Lin JJ, and Wang CH. “Immediate effect of forearm Kinesio taping on maximal grip strength and force sense in healthy collegiate athletes.” Phys Ther Sport 2010 Nov;11(4):122-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ptsp.2010.06.007. Epub 2010 Aug 1.
3 D. Morris, et al. “The Clinical Effects of Kinesio Tex Taping: A systematic review.” May 2013, Vol. 29, No. 4 , Pages 259-270.
4 An, Hyun Mo; Miller, Catherine Grove; McElveen, Michael; and Lynch, James M. (2012) “The Effect of Kinesio Tape® on Lower Extremity Functional Movement Screen™ Scores,”International Journal of Exercise Science: Vol. 5: Iss. 3, Article 2.
5 Halseth T, McChesney JW, DeBeliso M, et al. “The effects of kinesio taping on proprioception at the ankle.” Journal of Sports Science and Medicine (2004) 3, 1-7
6 Kase K, Hashimoto T, Tomoki O. “Development of kinesio taping perfect manual.” Kinesio Taping Association 1996; 6-10: 117-8
7 Yoshida A, Kahanov L. “The Effect of Kinesio Taping on Lower Trunk Range of Motions.” Res Sports Med 2007 Apr-Jun;15(2):103-12.
8 Murray H, Husk L. Effects of KinesioTM taping on proprioception in the ankle. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 31: A-37, 2001.
9 Tieh-Cheng Fu, Alice M.K. Wong, Yu-Cheng Pei, Katie P. Wu, Shih-Wei Chou, Yin-Chou Lin. “Effect of Kinesio taping on muscle strength in athletes – A pilot study.” Sports Medicine Australia doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2007.02.011
10 Kendall FP, McCreary EK, Provance PG: Muscles: Testing and Function With Posture and Pain Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1993.
11 Clark, Micheal, Scott Lucett, and Donald T. Kirkendall. NASM’s Essentials of Sports Performance Training. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010. Print.
12 Schmitt Walter H, Cuthbert Scott C. “Common errors and clinical guidelines for manual muscle testing: the arm test and other inaccurate procedures.” Chiropr Osteopat. 2008; 16: 16
13 Vaes PH, Duquet W, Casteleyn P, et al. Static and dynamic roentgenographic analysis of ankle stability in braced and nonbraced stable and functionally unstable ankles. Am J Sports Med. 1998; 26(5):692–702.
14 Greene TA, Hillman SK. Comparison of support provided by a semirigid orthosis and adhesive ankle taping before, during, and after exercise. Am J Sports Med . 1990; 18:498–506.
15 Amanda S, Buchanan MS, Carrie L, et al. Functional Performance Testing in Participants With Functional Ankle Instability and in a Healthy Control Group. J Athl Train . 2008; 3(4):342-6.
16 Stecco, Luigi. “Chapter 3: Physiology of the Myofascial Unit.” Fascial Manipulation for Musculoskeletal Pain. Piccin, 2004. Print.
17 Cramer, Gregory D., and Susan A. Darby. Basic and Clinical Anatomy of the Spine, Spinal Cord, and ANS. St. Louis: Elsevier Mosby, 2005. Print.
18 Hancock, Darren.”Scientific Explanation of Kinesio Tex Tape.”
19 Tieh-Cheng Fu, Alice M.K. Wong, Yu-Cheng Pei, Katie P. Wu, Shih-Wei Chou, Yin-Chou Lin. “Effect of Kinesio taping on muscle strength in athletes – A pilot study.” Sports Medicine Australia doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2007.02.011
20 Schmitt Walter H, Cuthbert Scott C. “Common errors and clinical guidelines for manual muscle testing: the arm test and other inaccurate procedures.” Chiropr Osteopat. 2008; 16: 16.
21 Simon, J, Donahue M . Effect of ankle taping or bracing on creating an increased sense of confidence, stability, and reassurance when performing a dynamic-balance task. J Sports Reabilitation. 2013; (3):229-33.
Some of you have asked to see photos taken at our 15th Annual Rehab Symposium which was held at the Paris Casino Hotel in Las Vegas this past Spring. The Rehab Council now has an official photographer, Dr. Amanda Fisher. To view photos taken at this our last Symposium please click on the below Shutterfly link:
The 16th Annual ACA Rehab Council Educational Symposium is scheduled to take place at the Disney Swan Hotel in Orlando, Fl on Friday, March 20th, 2014 – Sunday, March 22nd, 2015. If you enjoyed our last Symposium this past Spring at the Paris Casino Hotel in Las Vegas, come prepared … for the best is yet to come in Orlando.
For starters, there will be a welcome reception for all ACA Rehab Council members and ACRB Diplomates on Friday evening, March 20th at the Disney Swan Hotel (further details to follow). Then, the 12 CEU hour educational weekend kicks off on Saturday, March 21st, and features our keynote speaker, Greg Rose, DC/Engineer, Co-Founder of the Titleist Performance Institute, who will be discussing how to evaluate and rehab golf injuries. Greg travels the globe teaching amateurs and professionals how to be a better golfers as well as teaching clinicians how to better take care of patients with golf injuries. Jon Mulholland, DC, CCSP, CSCS will follow up with a spcial two hour presentation on athletic performance enhancement with a unique focus on foot and ankle biomechanics. Jon has played an integral role in the training and rehab of multiple Olympic medal winner and professional athletes and is currently the Sports Medicine Consultant for the New Zealand Olympic Cycling Team while acting in the capacity as their Team Doctor during the 2012 London Olympic Games.
On Sunday, March 22nd, the educational excellence continues featuring Sue Falsone, PT, MS, SCS, ATC, past Trainer for the Los Angeles Dodgers, who broke barriers by becoming the first female Head Athletic Trainer in Major American Professional Sports. She will lecture on common sports injuries incurred by professional athletes, how to treat and rehab them and, even more importantly, how to train the athlete in such as way as to prevent the injury from occurring in the first place. After Sue’s presentation, there will be three 2 hour breakout sessions. Brian Bachelder, PhD, from Aline Systems, will discuss movement efficiency, functional biomechanics and rehab as well as lower body biomechanics in the athlete, especially with respect to the foot and ankle. Paul Levy, from Human Scale, will give a 2 hour presentation on how to set up an ergonomic work station at home with a primary focus on improving the health and comfort of work life. Finally, both Luis Vera, DC, DIBCN, DIBE and Walt Engle, DC will lecture one hour each on “Electrodiagnosis and Rehab” and “Manipulation and Rehab” respectively to complete our 12 hour ACA Rehab Educational Symposium.
Although our 16th Annual ACA Rehab Symposium is still 8 months away, the Rehab Council website is already set up for you to register. To register, click here. You’re only a couple of clicks away from being a part of what might be our biggest, most educational and best Symposium the ACA Rehab Council has ever presented.
See you at the Disney Swan Hotel in 2015,
Jerrold J. Simon, DC, DACRB
Dr. Luis C. Vera, Assistant Professor at Palmer College of Chiropractic Florida and President of the American College of Clinical Electrodiagnosis (ACCE) of ACA Rehab Council, has been involved in the martial arts for over 30 years. He is the recipient of 8 State Championships, 5 Regional Championships and is a former U.S. National Champion among other martial arts awards & titles.
Dr. Vera currently holds the rank of San Dan (Third Degree Black Belt) in Goju Ryu Karate and as a result of his accomplishments and contributions will be inducted into the International Martial Arts Hall of Fame this year with other well respected martial artists such as William “Superfoot” Wallace and Vic Moore.
“We are very excited to introduce the newest element of our Biofreeze sampling program,” stated Ethan Pochman, Vice President, US Clinical, Performance Health. “With this new online sampling application, we accept consumer requests for free Biofreeze samples and provide those requests to healthcare practitioner resellers in the consumer’s area. The local practitioner will mail the free Biofreeze sample to the consumer. This creates an opportunity for the consumer to be introduced to both Biofreeze and a place to purchase it.”
Consumers looking to trial Biofreeze can request a free sample at samples.biofreeze.com.
Craig Liebenson is coming to Philadelphia July 18-20th and December 5-7th for a 3 day course. 18 CE’s will be available through New York Chiropractic College for each seminar in PA, NY, NJ, DE, and MD.
He will be teaching two 3 day Workshops on “Prague School to Athletic Development”
(Mag 7 & Prague School assessments, rehabilitation exercises, pain matrix, upper quarter & lower quarter, functional training, and performance training.)
The rehabilitation world is changing and to keep up on all the changes seems impossible. Craig travels all over the world and interacts with many of the industry leaders in rehabilitation, sports, and fitness trainers. This is a great opportunity to check your skill-set and spend a 3 day weekend with like-minded clinicians. Typically, he does the west coast symposiums so for anyone who hasn’t seen him in 3-4 years he has updated his lecture courses. Check out what others have said about this course at Craig Liebenson, DC | Prague School to Athletic Development Series.
Craig wants to offer all ACRB members a special discount, ONLY to ACRB members. When you register, select the NON-CLINICIAN rate for the 36 hour series ONLY – which is the trainer/student price ($1350 versus $1800)! This only applies to early bird registration so don’t procrastinate, do it before May 7th . Please reserve your seat ASAP, there is limited enrollment.
In order for the discount to apply, you will need to become ISCRS/R2P member – www.rehab2performance.com. R2P is basically a multidisciplinary version of ACRB with trainers, PTs & DCs who are bridging the gap. Below are some of the benefits. The free Back Letter & JMBT Journal easily pays for the initial fee.
· Phil Snell’s Myrehabexercise.com
· Free JMBT & The Back Letter Subscription
· Free access to my Self-Care Exercise Library
Chad Buohl and Jason Brown are ACRB diplomates and ISCRS/R2P members, if you have any questions please contact either one of them regarding these courses. firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com or rehabchiropractor.com.
Chad what you can offer which will be real sweet is any ACRB member can register at the NON-CLINICIAN rate for the 36 hour series ONLY – which is the trainer/student price! Remember they have until April 23rd.
More and more the Chiropractic profession is being targeted to assist with referring patients for pychiatric type drugging. It is vital that you have the correct data in this area. The following video and article links should be of value to your patients’ and family’s safety.
Dr. Alf Garbutt, Editor
The 15th Annual ACA Rehab Council Educational Symposium is scheduled to take place at the Paris Hotel & Casino in Las Vegas, NV on Friday, Feb. 28th, 2014 – Sunday, March 2nd, 2014.
If you are interested in a captivating weekend filled with excellent instruction on Rehab techniques, exposure to the latest in Rehab supplies and equipment, an exotic and fun filled locale, camaraderie with doctors who share your same interest in spinal and extremity rehabilitative procedures as well as receive 12 hours of license renewal credits in most states, look no further.
Featured speakers include Stuart McGill, PhD, professor of spine biomechanics at the University of Waterloo, ON, Canada, presenting his program on Training Maximum Performance which teaches the mechanism and techniques used with the fastest and strongest athletes. In addition, Lee Burton, PhD and Gray Cook, PT will be expounding on their 4 X 4 Matrix which explains the exercise strategy used by the Functional Movement Systems and Selective Functional Movement Assessment programs.
The time to register is now. Book your room at the Paris Casino Hotel by calling (877) 796-2096 and be sure to ask for the “ACA Rehab Council” rate at $159.00/night.
To register for the symposium, just click here to buy your ticket.
See you there,
Jerrold J. Simon, D.C.
Dr. James Brantingham just published a new e-book entitled Hip Osteoarthritis; Manipulative and Multimodal Therapy with Rehabilitation
Below is a statement about the eBook from the author to the ACA Rehab Council:
“I hope you saw my the recent article (in JACA) which discussed important and ground breaking research that I, and others have done – particularly on using HVLA grade 5 manipulation (& to a lesser degree mobilization) and exercise for Hip Osteoarthritis. Over 5 RCTs and many other studies have now demonstrated, that manipulative and multimodal therapy is effective in treatment of Hip Osteoarthritis.
Certainly this research could help you and other doctors who specialize in or take an Rehabilitation approach in treatment of many older patients, or younger patients (that have developed early Hip OA after trauma). This book also covers manual therapy research on Knee OA (particularly if it is co-morbid knee OA), and may help patients increase exercise or sports activity (for health or pleasure) but are seriously restricted because of lower extremity OA. Arthroscopic surgery is no longer recommended for common OA (with exceptions of course) so, this niche is not being offered and I believe we can help many of these suffering patients. I very much wish that chiropractic (my college when I was trained LACC now SCUHS) had taken rehabilitation more seriously (exercise and stretch among many other modalities are part and parcel of almost all of our lives).”
James W. Brantingham DC, PhD
The e-book can be purchased for $25.00 at Dr. Brantingham’s website: jamesbrantingham.com
OptoGait: 50% of new price – used less than 10 times. New sells for $6,895.00
The recent ACA Rehab Council membership vote on the proposed two new sub specialty Colleges and their respective Bylaws passed by a wide margin. Specifically, the American College of MUA (ACMUA) and the American College of Clinical Electrodiagnosis (ACCE) have met voter approval as specialty Colleges under the auspices of the ACA Rehab Council by its membership. The final vote and approval process now needs to be brought before the ACA HOD (House of Delegates). Thanks to the authors of the ACMUA Bylaws, namely Drs. John Cerf, Walt Engle, Alf Garbutt and Craig Morris. Thanks also to the authors of the ACCE Bylaws, namely Drs. Gary Smith, Jeff Ross, Mike Schneider and George Petruska.
At last weekend’s ACA House of Delegate’s (HOD) Meeting held in Greeley, CO the HOD approved the proposed Rehab Council’s Resolution on e-voting (see below) which means that all future elections and membership votes can proceed electronically:
PHYSIOLOGICAL THERAPEUTICS AND REHABILITATION
OF THE AMERICAN CHIROPRACTIC ASSOCIATION
CONSTITUTION AND BYLAWS
Resolution – Electronic Transmission
ARTICLE VII VOTING
B. At the discretion of the officers of the Council, when they feel it is in the best interest of the Council, the election of the officers will be by ballot at the annual meeting or by mail ballot. If the election is by mail ballot, the ballot will be mailed to each member forty-five (45) days prior to the annual meeting, and all the ballots MUST be returned thirty (30) days prior to the meeting. All ballots returned after that date will not be counted. Only members in good standing are permitted to vote.
With respect to the Constitution and Bylaws of the American Chiropractic Association Council on Physiological Therapeutics and Rehabilitation, the use of the terms mail, written document and letter can be used interchangeably and have the same legal authority as the terms verified e-mail and electronic transmission.
A Level 2 Functional Movement Systems Seminar is being held in Las Vegas at the Paris Hotel & Casino on Feb. 28th, 2014 from 8:00am – 5:00pm in conjunction with the 2014 ACA Rehab Symposium. Although not sponsored by the ACA Rehab Council, this Level 2 FMS Seminar will be held at the same location (Paris Hotel & Casino in Las Vegas) as our 2014 Rehab Symposium. The FMS Seminar date is 2/28/14, whereas the ACA Rehab Symposium dates are 3/1/14 – 3/2/14. To register for the FMS Seminar, log on to FunctionalMovement.com. More details of the FMS Seminar can be found below:
Level 2 Functional Movement Systems Seminar Description
This course is designed to enhance exercise professionals’ perspectives on improving fundamental movement patterns. The Functional Movement Screen will be reviewed and corrective exercise will be discussed based on movement dysfunction. The functional exercise progressions will be demonstrated and focus will be placed on how to utilize the FMS to properly prescribe and implement corrective strategy. More hands-on and practical information will be presented, using case studies and lab settings to show how the FMS can be used to provide a foundation for improvement in overall exercise programming. Objectives of this seminar:
- Provide more insight into the implementation of the FMS into your training philosophy.
- Enhance your ability to use the FMS to progress from corrective exercise to functional and traditional exercise.
- Introduce other assessment techniques which complement the FMS.
- Describe traditional and non-traditional strength and conditioning exercises and how they fit into the Functional Movement System.
To Register, log on at FunctionalMovement.com
WHAT: Five one-day course series of practical hands-on training in corrective exercise/rehab taught by Dr. Jeffrey Tucker.
WHO: This class is open to DC’s, PT’s, AT’s & students (personal trainers need to speak to Dr. Tucker before enrolling).
Credits earned by both doctors and students at these courses may be used toward the ACA Rehab Diplomate credential (DACRB).
WHERE: Premiere Spine & Sport 4982 Cherry Ave. San Jose, CA 95118
WHEN: Saturdays from 8:00a.m to 7:00pm
Seminar: 8:00 a.m. – 7:00 p.m.
Includes two 15-min. breaks; (late morning & late afternoon)
Lunch: 1:45 p.m. to 2:30 p.m. Lunch provided by host
OBJECTIVES: Create specific rehabilitation and/or exercise programs
COST: Registration: 7:30 – 8:00 a.m. Doctor cost per course: $325 Registration Students cost per course $230 Registration Early Bird Registration – Register 30 days in advance & save $30 per course! Or Pay $1,295 for all 5 Courses (Save $330.00!)
Registration is limited to the first 40 registrations.
We cannot accept walk-ins without advance notice
CONTACT: Questions? Contact Course Chair: Dr. Jeffrey Tucker Email: DrJTucker@aol.com or Phone: (310) 339-0442 Phone: 1-310-444-9393
June 8, 2013, Hip: This course in an application of diagnosis, assessment, and rehabilitation principles to common orthopedic conditions such as hamstring and groin sprains/strains, hip labral tears, pubic symphysis conditions. You will gain knowledge in functional anatomy and management of hip pain. It also covers open closed chain/functional movements, lower extremity functional-whole body exercises, as well as advanced issues in the objective measurement of soft tissue injury and specific stability ball exercises.
July 13, 2013, Knee & OA: This course presents rehabilitation for the management of osteoarthritis and the knee. Assessment of the knee and specific corrective exercises will be taught. Rehabilitation for common sports and industrial injuries will be presented. The functional anatomy and management of lower extremity pain will be taught. Open closed chain/functional movement, lower extremity functional-whole body exercises.
August 3, 2013, Ankle-Feet, plyometrics & balance training: This is an in-depth course in the evaluation of gait and functional anatomy of the foot and ankle. Functional management and exercises of common sports and industrial injuries of the lower extremity pain are taught. Beginner to intermediate issues in the principles and protocols in balance & stabilization training, ball, band /tubing, & bodyweight training as it relates to the lower extremities.
September 7, 2013, Shoulder: This course provides an in-depth analysis to the upper quarter and shoulder functional anatomy and movement assessments. This is a workshop for shoulder rehabilitation (application of rehabilitation principles to common orthopedic conditions) using low load exercises, bands, free weights and kettlebells. Course goal is proficiency in the management of shoulder and upper extremity pain. Specific band exercise training will be taught.
Resolution of Recurrent Acute Episodes of a Chronic Lumbar Disc Herniation Utilizing Chiropractic Rehabilitation Procedures and a Multi-Modal Wellness Model of CareMarch 28th, 2013
Peer Reviewed by the American Chiropractic Rehabilitation Board
Michael W. Mathesie, DC, CCSP, DABFP, DACRB*
*Chiropractor; Private Practice
10617 West Atlantic Boulevard
Coral Springs, Florida 33071
Structured Abstract: A Retrospective Treatment/ Management Case Report
Objective: To document and describe a multi-modal treatment method approach, that can be utilized in resolving a case of long term recurrent exacerbations of a lumbar disc herniation, resulting in low back pain and sciatica in a 39 year old construction worker.
Methods: The review of the literature suggests numerous methods for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation; this is including: spinal manipulation, physical therapy methods, rehabilitation, NSAIDS, steroid epidural injections, and surgery. The methods used in this case include non pharmaceutical and non surgical methods available to the chiropractor. Nutritional advice included elimination of corn syrup and sugar drinks, an increase in water intake, a reduction of breads and grains, the addition of supplements (including niacin and omega 3 essential fatty acids) and a daily general supplement pack with enzymes. A heel lift was fit for the patient for an anatomical short right leg. During the passive phase of care, modalities including High Volt Electrical Muscle Stimulation @ 80-150Hz, Interferential Electrical Muscle Stimulation @ 1-10Hz, Ice, breathing exercises, and 910nm LASER, were utilized in the acute stages of treatment along with Chiropractic Spinal Manipulation for the first 8 visits. During the transitional phase of care Post Isometric Relaxation Muscle Energy Techniques progressing to Post Facilitation Stretch, Manual Therapy Soft Tissue Techniques, Foam Roll Maneuvers, Posture Stretches, Side Bridges Progression, Cat-Camel, Dead Bug and Quadruped Bracing Progressions, were introduced with continued 910nm Laser Therapy and PRN Chiropractic Spinal Manipulation over the next 9 visits. During the active phase of care, after a full functional assessment, the patient began a 20 minute cardiovascular training program and continued progressions of the previous transitional program exercises. Additional rehabilitation was initiated consisting of: Deep Neck Flexion, Push-ups, Scapulo-Thoracic Facilitation, McGill Curl Up Lumbar Stabilization Exercises, Cook Hip Lift Lumbar Stabilization, Side Bridge McGill Lumbar Stabilization Exercises, Prone Bridge McGill Lumbar Stabilization, Supine Bridges with Progressions to Gym Ball, Standing Lunges, Superman with Gym Ball, Bird Dog, Wall Squat with Gym Ball, and Balance Training on Rocker Board for an additional 10 visits, which were performed for a total of eight weeks. A one month follow-up visit occurred for a total of 28 visits. In this case, the visits were completed within a three month period.
Discussion: Considering that the cause of low back pain is so complex, it would not be efficient to limit the treatment option to one mode. In this case, the patient was brought through the passive, transitional, and active phases of chiropractic rehabilitation. The patient also followed simple nutritional recommendations for weight loss, general health, and to lower blood pressure, inflammation, triglycerides, and cholesterol levels. He was given a heel lift for an anatomical short leg, to balance the lumbar spine and improve a lumbar convexity. He improved his cardiovascular fitness in the office and at home, and was taught to strengthen his spinal stabilizing core while being treated with a 250 Watt peak power; this included a 2 Watt average power, and a 910nm wavelength LASER that would have the ability to reach the target tissue of the lumbar facet and discs.
Conclusion: The patient responded well with treatment in a two month time frame, and then with a one month follow- up. There was no longer any residual chronic low back pain or sciatic radiculopathy, which has not been able to be accomplished in nearly 20 years for this patient. A normal strength and flexibility level was reached, using referenced Physical Performance Ability Test Methods and Measurements. There was a near normal BMI accomplished from previous obesity, normal cholesterol ￼￼￼￼ from previous hypercholesterolemia, normal glucose from borderline hyperglycemia, 33 pounds of weight loss, a decreased resting heart rate, and a decreased blood pressure. Common outcome assessment tools were utilized, and scores were dramatically improved including: Roland–Morris Low Back Pain and Disability Questionnaire (RMQ), Revised Oswestry Back Pain and Disability Questionnaire, and Health Status Questionnaire/SF-36/Rand 36.
Keywords: Lumbar Disc Herniation, Chiropractic Rehabilitation, 910nm Superpulsed Laser, Weight Loss, Heel Lift, Outcome Assessments, Chiropractic Spinal Manipulation
This case is an example of a common type of patient presenting to a chiropractic office, which includes: a nutrient deficient, obese, de-conditioned, early middle aged male physical laborer, with signs of pre-diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and elevated blood pressure. Along with a chief complaint of nearly 20 years of recurrent exacerbations of a lumbar disc herniation, resulting in chronic low back pain and acute episodes of sciatica. The objective, in this case, is to document and describe a wellness model of care using a multi-modal treatment method; an approach for a portal of entry chiropractor that could be utilized in resolving the presenting musculoskeletal conditions of the patient as well as the underlying additional health conditions that are co- morbidities affecting the healing process and the future health of the patient.
Case Report Presentation:
History of Present Illness (HPI) and Chief Complaint/ Symptoms: The patient entered the office explaining that at 8:30 AM he had bent over and lifted a small generator at a construction site, turned, and felt a pop in his lower back. He immediately felt pain in his lower back region, and it progressively got worse throughout the day. The pain eventually began to radiate to his right buttock and posterior thigh, his girlfriend had to drive him to the office. The symptoms remained to be constant; 100% of the time, they were severe in intensity, rated as an 8 to a 9 on a Quadruple Visual Analog Scale, with 8 being the best and 9 being the worst. His current and average pain levels were at a 9. The symptoms were further described as low back pain, from the bilateral ribs to the top of the crests, and then pain in the right butt cheek, under the butt cheek, and down the back of thigh stopping right before the back of the knee. The patient also described his back as being swollen. He said the pain he felt was sharp, dull, deep, burning and achy. The pain diagram filled in by the patient matched the description. He stated that lying on his back decreased the pain by a little, and putting weight on the right leg, including any movement, increased the pain. Prior to this episode, he has suffered from chronic low back pain, on and off, for 20 years, since high school sports. He also expressed, that he always feels stiffness and tightness in his body, even in the mid back region and neck, but those regions were not as painful in comparison to the pain he felt in his lower back. The patient revealed that 2 years ago he went to a pain doctor who ordered him a lumbar MRI; the patient brought in the results of the MRI for my review.
Activities of Daily Living Form revealed that there were no activities that could be performed except sedentary items and those not related to movement.
Outcome Assessment Forms, Red Flag and Risk Factor Assessments: These questionnaires were filled out to assess risks and set up baselines for future comparisons, and to determine levels of improvements; the results can be evaluated below in Table 1.
Past Medical History: The patient revealed a history of an appendix and tonsil surgery as a child: a broken right middle finger in high school, lacerated thumb requiring 20 stitches a few years ago, an automobile accident five years ago with no treatment, many traumas to the spine and extremities from high school sports, and he admitted to 8 episodes of this similar problem over the last 10 to 20 years. There was no other history of major illnesses, hospitalizations, or traumas revealed. His last physical examination was approximately two years ago, when he went to the pain doctor for pain medication and had injections. There was no blood work-up performed, according to the patient at that time, and he thinks it has been over 5 years since he’s had blood taken. Current Medication: He took 2 unknown pain pills from a co-worker this morning. For many years, he has been regularly taking two Motrin (400mg) every day, for his low back pain. Allergies: Pollen; Codeine; no other known allergies were listed.
Family History: The patient revealed that there was no heart disease, blood pressure conditions, cancer, or strokes in his immediate family. However, he revealed that his father has just been diagnosed with diabetes, and his father and mother both have high cholesterol. Since the patient had not had a blood work-up in over five years, further evaluation will occur regarding serum cholesterol and glucose levels.
Social/Occupational History: This patient is divorced, has an occasional two cigarettes a week, and consumes two alcoholic drinks a day with an occupation as a self employed carpenter/construction worker. His duties include construction, carpentry, form work, and framing which is often very strenuous. The highest level of education reached, is the completion of high school. The patient reveals that he does believe he has stress in his life, with some financial worries and trying to find work all the time, but not too high. He rarely takes a multi vitamin and often has fast food, processed food, and soda/sugar drinks at work all day. Prior to this injury, he had exercised less than moderately. He occasionally participates in other sports and activities, and he states that he usually does not get 6 to 9 hours of sleep each night.
Review of Systems: There were no symptoms of weakness, fatigue, fever, night sweats, weight loss, or any indication of vision, hearing, nasal, or throat disorders, coughing, difficulty breathing, chest discomfort, difficulty or loss of bladder or bowel control, rashes, numbness, major mental or hormonal disorders, or other blood, immune, or lymphatic abnormalities. However, he mentioned the feeling of pins and needles in his right leg. There was stuffiness mentioned for the nasal system, contributed to the allergies and construction dust, but there were no other additional symptoms noted to indicate additional organ dysfunction, except muscle/joint pain/back pain/stiffness was listed. However, this is part of the chief complaint, because he also has a chronic intermittent lower back condition.
Clinical Impression/Working Diagnosis: Based on the history, the patient most likely has a sprain/strain in the lumbar spine, with sciatic neuritis and possible disc herniation aggravation. A comprehensive examination will be performed to confirm this working diagnosis.
Physical Findings: This was a 39 year old, 5′ 11″, 225 pound, slightly disheveled appearance, endomorph body type, afebrile, Caucasian male with blood pressure of 138/89, and a pulse rate of 90 bpm with normal rate, rhythm and amplitude, and respiration rate of 19 breaths per minute. He would be considered obese based on the Body Mass Index calculation of (225 #/71 inches2) X 703 = 31.4 BMI. This would be considered within the “30 BMI and above” which would be the obese category; 18.5 to 24.9 would be normal category. Observation/Inspection of the skin, revealed no rashes or major scars of the head, neck, trunk, back, or extremities, except the hands, fingers, and forearms had multiple scars from working in construction. The fingernails were normal, there were no tattoos, no contusions, cuts, or discolorations noted on the spine or pelvis regions.
Percussion of the bony structures around the spine and pelvis, using a reflex hammer, revealed all normal findings except that the lower lumbar spinous processes were very tender when being struck with severe levels of increased pain. This was a suspicious finding, although hitting the painful areas would typically increase the pain, this level was more than would be expected.
Palpation/Inspection of the head, neck, trunk, back, and extremities (including skin, lymph nodes and thyroid gland) revealed all to be within normal limits except the bilateral lumbar paraspinals, and right quadratus lumborum were in spasm—rated at a 2— which is a spasm existing without provocation. Tenderness of this area would be graded as +4; thus, the patient complained of severe tenderness and withdraws immediately in response to the test pressure, and was unable to bear sustained pressure. The right Gluteals and piriformis muscles were in spasm, rated as a 1, which is triggered with movement or external pressure. These areas would be graded a +3 for tenderness, which is considerable tenderness, and withdraws momentarily in response to test pressure. The hamstring muscles were very tender to palpation, rated as a +2, which is moderately tender. The cervical paraspinal muscles revealed mild trigger points that were tender, graded as +1, which would be mildly tender or annoying.
Peripheral Vascular Evaluation consisted of auscultation of the carotid, subclavian, abdominal aorta, and femoral arteries for which there were no bruits heard. There was no swelling distally in the ankles or feet.
Specialized Testing consideration was appropriate at this point, because there was significant provocation upon percussion of the spinous processes of the lumbar spine, suggesting a possible fracture of the spinous processes, which could occur with some lifting injuries. This was considered in order to prevent further damage to the patient, from performing more strenuous testing. AP, lateral, left and right posterior oblique x-ray views of the lumbar spine, was taken on this patient before the exam was continued, in order to rule out the red flag of fracture of the spinous processes. The films did not reveal any fractures or other pathology; thus, the examination proceeded. The x-ray findings will be listed in a subsequent paragraph.
Range of motion of the cervical spine using dual inclinometer method reveals Flexion 45/50, extension 50/60, right lateral flexion 40/45, left lateral flexion 40/45, right rotation 65/85, and left rotation 70/85. There was no pain reported in the cervical spine, just stiffness. The lumbosacral spine ranges of motion were measured at flexion 30/65 (reached 24 inches from the toes) and pain in lumbar and right gluteal/posterior thigh, extension 10/30 with pain at lumbosacral region/right SI joint, and upper gluteal, right lateral flexion 10/25 right gluteal/hamstring pain, and left lateral flexion 20/25 with no increase in pain. Thoracic ranges of motion were flexion 40/60, right rotation 15/30, and left rotation 20/30. These movements increased low back pain. Range of motion of the hip joints, using goniometer revealed flexion to be 120/135 on the left and 50/135 on the right with both movements, resulted with increasing pain in the lower back and down the right posterior thigh. The Extension was 20/30 on the left and 10/30 on the right; both caused low back pain. Abduction and Adduction were too painful for him to complete. Internal rotation was 30/35 on the left and 25/35 on the right, with an increase in pain in the right gluteal. External rotation of the hip revealed 30/45 on the left and 20/45 on the right with increased pain in the right buttock with movement. Knee flexion was 115/135+ on the left and 105/135+ on the right. There was only a mild increase in low back pain upon knee flexion, no knee pain. The knee could be fully extended and there was obvious abnormal movement patterns noted in the spine.
Posture evaluation revealed: anterior head translation, a left head tilt, a high left shoulder, bilateral internally rotated shoulders, an increase in thoracic kyphosis, a high left ilium, mild left torso translation, a pendulous abdomen, and flattened Gluteals. Gait revealed a mild limp with the patient putting more weight on the left leg, no pronation of the feet, a mild right external rotation of the foot, and a slow cadence of gait were all noted.
Chiropractic evaluation, utilizing motion palpation of spinal joint play, was performed. Ligamentous fixations were noted at C1/C2, C5/C6 and C7/T1, T5/T6 and T12/L1, L4/L5, and Bilateral SI joints were fixated to a moderate degree. These fixations indicated kinesiopathology components of the subluxation complex. There was no crepitation or hypermobilities noted. No contusions were visually evident in these regions. There was obvious hypertrophy of the lower thoracic musculature and tenderness of the lumbar paraspinals as noted above, as well as additional right sided hypertrophy apparent from a lumbar spinal right convexity. There was also inflamed muscle tissue noted with mild edema, palpated along the paraspinals and right iliac crest.
Neurological Examination: The patient was oriented to time, place, and person. The mood was normal. A normal review of the cranial nerves was noted. Peripheral vascular system revealed normal skin temperature, and normal pulses of the upper and lower extremities. The Muscle tone in the upper and lower extremities was normal with no atrophy, fasciculations, spasticity, or flaccidity noted. Dermatome sensation to light, touch, and sharp stimulus was normal bilaterally along both upper and lower extremities (except S1 on the right would be considered hyperesthesia) because it was perceived as an increase in sensation compared to the left S1 dermatome, as well as the right L5 dermatome above, and S2 dermatome below. Muscle strength was 5/5 for all major upper and lower extremity muscle groups. Deep tendon reflexes of the upper and lower extremities were 2+, normal. Tandem Gait was difficult and not completed due to pain. Babinski’s Sign was absent with the toes going into plantar flexion. Rhomberg Sign was absent. Coordination testing of finger to nose was normal. Cerebral function was assessed with the patient being able to count backwards from 35 in intervals of 7. He was able to rapidly move his hand to his thigh, chest, and other hand. The girth of his left calf was 15 inches and the right calf was 15 inches.
Orthopedic Examination: In addition to the above findings, a musculoskeletal examination including inspection and palpation of the bilateral joints, bones, muscles, and tendons with stability/provocative testing revealed the following: Vertebral Basilar Artery Functional Maneuver was negative for vertebral artery insufficiency. Thoracic outlet syndrome testing was negative. Cervical foraminal compression, Maximum Compression, and Soto-Hall/forced flexion were all negative for any increase in cervical pain or radiation of pain. Shoulder depressor testing was negative but did cause a mild pulling sensation of the trapezius muscles, not pain. Jull’s Test with the patient asked to hold their head off the table for 10 seconds, resulted in chin jutting indicating weak deep neck flexors. An increase in intrathecal pressure caused an increase in lower lumbar spine pain. Straight Leg Raise Test caused an increase in low back pain bilaterally and also radiation to the right posterior thigh above the knee at 50° of right passive hip flexion. The hamstrings were shortened bilaterally with 70 degrees on the left and 50 degrees on the right. Bowstring Sign was negative bilaterally. Patrick’s Test was performed causing pain on the right side indication a possible right hip lesion and indicating very tight groin muscles bilaterally. Milgram’s Test was performed causing pain in the lower lumbar spine almost immediately and revealed very weak abdominals and/or hip flexors. Thomas’ Test revealed shortened Iliopsoas muscles bilaterally. Pelvic compression testing revealed pain in the right SI joint and surrounding regions. Nachlas’ Test caused pain in the right lumbosacral region and Sacroiliac Joint. Hibb’s Test revealed pain in the right SI joint and deep gluteal region when pushing away the right leg, also causing the left pelvis to rise, indicating piriformis shortening. There was no pain on the left Hibb’s Test. There was tight quadriceps muscles noted bilaterally with the patient unable to reach the heels to the buttocks with a passive stretch. Yeoman’s Test was positive on the right for SI joint pain. Kemp’s/Quadrant Test caused local low back pain and radiation of pain on the right when rotating the patient posteriorly on the right. Passive Scapula Approximation Test was negative for interscapula pain. There were no deformities, step offs, masses or instabilities noted.
X-rays: The views that were taken included the upright AP lumbopelvic, AP spot, lateral, and left and right posterior oblique x- ray views of the lumbar spine. As discussed previously, the physical exam was discontinued until fractures were ruled out and then the examination proceeded. The films did not reveal any fractures, on any of the projections, within any portion of the spinous processes or vertebral bodies. The AP lumbopelvis view revealed a lumbar convexity with an 11 degrees Cobb’s angle to the right, with a pelvic deficiency of 9 mm on the right side, measured at the heads of the femur, indicating an anatomical short leg on the right side. The L4/L5 and L5/S1 facets showed mild arthrosis. There was mild global left spinous rotation noted of the lumbar spine. The lateral projection revealed mild L5 disc space narrowing. The intervertebral foramens were patent. A mild loss in the lumbar lordosis is evident. Mild anterior spondylosis is evident on the vertebral bodies of L2/L3 and L5/S1. The oblique projections show no separation of the pars.
MRI: The patient brought in with him a copy of a lumbar spine MRI report, and compact disc from a local MRI Center dated 12/18/09, 15 months ago, which was ordered during his last episode of pain similar to this. The report written by a medical radiologist, who was considered reputable in the community, revealed a right paracentral herniation L5-S1 with loss of lumbar lordosis and a very mild dextroscoliosis. These findings were compared to the images and were accurate, thus the report was initialed.
No physical performance testing was attempted on this visit, to establish a baseline or weak link, because of the acute inflammatory phase or stage of the patient’s condition.
Diagnostic Impression/Assessment: This is an acute new injury over a pre-existing chronic weakness.
1. 847.2-Lumbar Spine Sprain/Strain
2. 724.3-Sciatic Radiculitis/S1
4. 728.85-Muscle Spasm; Piriformis
5. 739.3-Lumbar Joint; 739.4 SI Joint; Dysfunction/
Non-Allopathic Lesion/Subluxation Complex
1. 722.10-Lumbar Disc Herniation/L5
2. 739.2-Thoracic Joint Dysf./Non-Allopathic Lesion/ Subluxation Complex 3. 728.87 Muscle Weakness
4. 719.7-Difficulty Walking
5. 781.92-Abnormal Posture
Complicating Factors: The patient had co-morbidities noted; he was de-conditioned, had a pendulous abdomen, had a 9mm right short leg contributing to a mild right convex lumbar curvature, he was obese by at least 40 pounds, worked a laborious job, had an alcohol intake of two drinks per day, and occasionally smoked.
Prognosis: Fair. He has had this condition for many years, with on and off flare-ups every one to two years. He has never truly addressed the underlying weaknesses contributing to the problem. He works in a job that requires the use of his back. He has a confirmed L5 disc herniation that appears moderate in size. This condition could become more stable with proper methods applied. If he chose to follow my directions and treatment plan, this prognosis could be elevated.
Discussion, Decision Making, Treatment Goals and Initial Treatment Plan: The initial treatment plan was recommended to consist of short term, one to three weeks of ice with compression on the lumbar spine. This includes electrical stimulation of the lumbar spine and right piriformis/gluteal region to decrease pain and tissue swelling, starting with high volt galvanic at 80 to 150 Hz (encephalon release) and then after several visits, interferential at 1-10 Hz (endorphin release). He was instructed to wear an all elastic lumbar support brace for the next five days; it was to be worn only when moving and traveling places, and not when in bed or sitting at home. The brace is not rigid, but semi-flexible. He was required to return the back brace support to the office to assure he did not wear it past five days. The use of this brace was for short term only, to protect the injured area from re- injury while it was healing, to rest the injured tissue and to compress the injured tissue. At the same time, there was an attempt to prevent further weakness and disuse atrophy of the small spinal muscles of the spine. Also recommended, was LASER therapy to the lower lumbar region, L5 and SI joint, and right piriformis muscles for the reduction of pain, inflammation, and for the biostimulatory effects on the joint and soft tissue. To reach the facet and disc, which is at least 3.5cm to 5cm deep, a 910nm LASER must be used. Chiropractic Manipulative Treatment/Adjustments/Manipulation was recommended to the thoracolumbar region, lumbosacral and sacroiliac subluxation complex kinesiopathophysiological components as indicated during this initial stage of care. He was also given a soft tissue supplement pak, containing 660 mg of turmeric root extract, 705 mg of an enzyme blend of protease, amylase, papain, lipase, bromelain and others, quercetin, GABA, vitamin C, B-6, calcium, and magnesium for the inflammation and tissue repair. This would be taken as directed on the box and brochure given, and would immediately be stopped if any nausea occurred. If this occurs try to take it with food. The patient would then be re-evaluated within approximately 3 weeks unless indicated earlier or later. Treatment frequency would be three times a week, but he could be seen daily for the first few days in result of the severity of pain. He was treated on the day of this initial examination.
The clinician would be evaluating for improvement of symptoms and function. Short term treatment goals, by two to four weeks, will be a 50% decrease in the symptoms intensity, elimination of the majority of tissue swelling, the ability to sit, drive, and stand for more than one hour without an increase in pain, and the ability to walk without a limp, and to be able to perform basic functional testing maneuvers to assess his baseline. An additional goal for this patient was to lose 15 pounds in 30 days. He wanted to finally get rid of the chronic back pain that kept returning. The patient was concerned about his elevated blood pressure and wanted his cholesterol checked, and he agreed to listen to my recommendations. The patient would also utilize ice on the lumbar spine and right gluteal region with compression at home; applying a bag of crushed ice on a moist towel over the complaint area for 15 minutes, and then re-apply when the skin is normal to touch. The patient was given a requisition form to go to Quest Labs and have blood drawn for a comprehensive metabolic panel, thyroid panel, CBC, and Lipid Panel to evaluate the fatigue, thyroid, cholesterol levels, and glucose levels; it was done with the consideration of the borderline elevated blood pressure, obesity, and scores on the health status questionnaire.
This was an acute injury/condition with multiple components to the diagnoses. It required a low to moderate complexity of medical decision making, including the reviewing of diagnostic images and reports, low risk of morbidity, as well as the length of time spent face to face with the patient of over 75 minutes, with at least 25 minutes involving counseling. However this was regarding the options for him, including the referral for pharmaceutical intervention or epidural injection consultation, or the following up with a rehabilitation program with this office over the next 3 to 15 weeks. The risks of treatment and the risks of not getting treatment, were discussed with the patient and listed on the separate signed informed consent form, and the patient stated that he understood all elements and wanted to start the treatment plan that day.
The patient was able to stand on the platform of a hi-lo table, and the table was then lowered to the prone position. Four adhesive electrode pads were attached to the four lead wires, and placed over the left and right L5 paraspinal/quadratus regions and the right upper and middle buttock. The high volt galvanic (HVG) (G0283) was set at 80-150 Hz for encephalon release and pain relief to slightly more than patient perception for 20 minutes. Ice (97010) was also applied to the same region with compression for no longer than 15 minutes to prevent an increased reaction of blood flow. After the ice and HVG therapy was complete, a 910nm 250W peak, 2W average power, superpulsed LASER device (S8948) was applied to the patient while in a side lying position at the right side of the interspinous space between L5/S1, the right top of the sacrum, the right SI joint, and the right piriformis muscle with 1344 Joules in a total area of 90 cm2 for a dose or energy density of 15 J/cm2 at the surface over 15 minutes. The use of ice prior to using LASER is often beneficial because less blood in the capillaries will allow better transmission of photons through the tissue. The patient was given an adjustment/spinal manipulation in the side posture position to the Left SI joint, and T11 fixations/subluxation complex. The right SI joint was too acute to manipulate on the initial visit. He tolerated the adjustment (98940) very well. The patient was fitted with an all elastic lumbosacral support brace to protect from re-injury, rest, and compress the lower back to assist in the reduction of swelling and pain. This is a loan to the patient to assure that he returns it and does not wear it for more than 5 days. He agreed to return it within the recommended time period. The patient was instructed not to wear it when sleeping or when sitting for long periods; he was only required to wear it when standing and walking. He understood that it was the goal to not have him become dependent on the brace, and would be utilized short term during the first phase/inflammatory phase. He was instructed to use ice at home with a moist towel on the skin, use a zip lock bag of crushed ice cubes on top of the wet towel for 15 minutes at a time, and then apply the ice again when the skin returns normal to touch (up to four times a day). The patient was given a three page handout on McKenzie self treatment/stretching and sciatica by Liebenson that he should read and attempt to put his body into the positions on the sheets. His breathing patterns were reviewed, also demonstrated and instructed him that while doing the exercises (even when standing or lying down) he must practice inhaling with his abdomen and ribs coming outward, and breathing out/exhaling with his abdomen and ribs coming inward; his shoulders and chest should not rise with breathing. It was explained to him that this could be a great exercise for him to start, and that it is not strenuous for his back and will help him have a head start when additional exercises begin in the weeks to come. The patient was instructed to return the next day. This treatment was performed for 4 visits over the next 7 days.
On the third visit the lab results came back. The results are available in Table 2. In addition to the soft tissue support vitamin/mineral/enzyme pak he was already taking. He was recommended to go to the health food store and purchase additional 100 mg capsules of niacin (B3) in the form of nicotinic acid. The patient was informed about the flush sensation which feels similar to a sunburn, but disappears in approximately 30 minutes. He should start with 100 mg three times a day for a week if tolerated. Then slowly titrate up to 500 mg three times a day. A slight flush, is the maximum he should feel. If it is more than that, he should back off. After three months, he should decrease the amount gradually and just include it in a multiple vitamin or other supplement packs or B-complex. This is to lower the triglycerides and increase his HDL levels and lower his LDL. He was also recommended to take 3000 mg of molecularly distilled Omega 3 essential fatty acids per day (in 1000 mg separate doses) to help lower triglycerides and possibly blood pressure, LDL cholesterol and increase HDL. He should increase his walnut and almond intake every day with at least a handful of each. Since he requested assistance with weight loss and fatigue; dietary recommendations included the complete elimination of all sugar drinks including electrolyte “ade” type, Cola, Iced Teas, and every other drink with sugar and corn syrup. No diet, energy, or vitamin water drinks, or artificial sweeteners were allowed either. He was instructed to drink as much water as he wants to for thirst. He may have plain green or black teas (cold or hot) with no sweeteners. He was able to use squeezed lemon in liquids. He may have two eggs for breakfast. He may also have a mixture of steel cut oats, shredded coconut, sliced almonds, walnuts, pecans, cinnamon, chia seeds, pumpkin seeds, and a banana with almond milk. He may have up to four servings of real beef/chicken/fish a day, but no processed cold cuts or jerky. He can have as much fresh or frozen vegetables (salads or steamed vegetables) as he wants to eat in a day, but can only use extra virgin olive oil, vinegar, lemon, Himalayan Salt, pepper, curry, hot sauce, or other seasonings on them. No other liquid dressings or oils were permitted. He may have one sweet potato or white potato a day if he wants and one serving of bread a day (two slices) if he must. For example, he can have a sandwich for lunch but not a full hero/hoagie roll. He may have four handfuls of fruit a day, (i.e. one whole fruit like an apple, orange, banana is each a handful, a big handful of blueberries is a handful) no more. He was permitted to cheat on his diet only one day a week (a Saturday night). Although this was a big change for him, he understood the parameters and promised to stick with it. He understood his lab results and understood that if the levels did not change in three months, he would need to see a medical doctor for pharmaceutical intervention. On the 5th visit over a 9 day span, the type of EMS was changed to interferential therapy. Interferential therapy (G0283) was applied with four adhesive electrode pads with the leads placed properly in a criss-cross pattern over the lower lumbar muscles/quadratus region and the upper gluteal/piriformis with most of the L5 region pain in the center of the pads vectors attempting to reach deeper in the tissue. The interferential machine was set to 1-10 Hz for endorphin release and continued pain relief, but also to increase circulation and reduce spasm, and set to patient comfort/tolerance for 20 minutes. Ice (97010) was also continued; to be applied to the same region with a compression wrap, but for only 15 minutes because of the tissue thickness and to prevent an increased reaction of blood flow. After the ice and interferential therapy application, a 910nm, 250W peak powered, 2W average powered LASER device (S8948) was applied to the lower lumbar/L5/and Right SI structures, delivering 1344 Joules in a total area of 90 cm2 for a dose or energy density of 15 J/cm2 at the surface over 15 minutes. He was given a side posture adjustment (98940) to the right and left SI joint fixations/subluxations, and supine adjustment to the lower thoracic segments. Light, passive range of motion was applied to the lower extremity to all muscles and all planes of his tolerance levels, and they were done to not aggravate the sciatica on the right, and just to relieve tension on the left side. He was instructed to try to walk a little more during the day and avoid sitting or lying down at all. He can continue to use ice at home as directed. This treatment was performed from the 5th to the 8th visit in slightly over two weeks. On his 6th visit, wall angel exercises were instructed, and performed to assist with the weak scapula stabilizers, tight pectoralis, and thoracic kyphosis. On the 7th visit, since his short right leg measurement was 9mm on the standing x-rays previously taken, he was given a 5mm heel lift to put into his right shoe. He walked around and did not have any problems with the lift. The patient is instructed to always remember to wear it in all his shoes. The pelvis appeared more balanced with the heel lift in the right shoe. On the 8th visit he was re-assessed/examined and functional and physical performance evaluations were performed, provocative tests were less severe regarding positive signs; some of the functional measurements and findings were noted in Table1, Table 2, and Table 3. The patient then began transitional care on the 9th visit to the 17th visit, for which the next goal was to continue with correct breathing patterns, stretching strategies, and stabilizing strategies. He continued to receive spinal adjustment/manipulations on a needed basis as well as the LASER therapy more regularly each visit. He continued on the diet and nutrition regimen, home exercises previously given, and additional ones. The transitional sessions consisted of breathing exercises for 6 to 8 minutes in the office, while stretching supine on a gym ball with the patient’s arms extended above his head, and then out to the sides stretching the pectoralis muscles and extending the thoracic hyperkyphosis. He was explained that with all exercises, the object is to never do a bad repetition to prevent creating a bad motor pattern. Stop at a bad rep and do more sets of fewer repetitions. Next the patient stood looking in the mirror (for awareness) holding perfect posture and abdominal hollowing with a “small foot” for 10 seconds at a time and this was repeated for three sets. He was then instructed to lay supine on a foam roll in the vertical position with arms to the side for 2 minutes and then up above the head for 2 minutes. He was then instructed to lay supine on a foam roll in the horizontal position and roll back and forth on the thoracic spine working the myofascial adhesions of the lower thoracic, and the hyperkyphosis of the upper back for 2 minutes. He was instructed that cavitation may occur and that would be fine. Next the Cat-Camel was performed for 6 to 8 minutes accentuating the correct breathing and reinforcing the tightening of the core, and assisting the form by holding the low back and abdomen for the patient and having him hold the positions. Quadruped Bracing:-on all fours-with chin tucked and neutral spine with a stiffened trunk/core using the “end cough contracted position” technique, and challenging the patient with perturbations when able, was performed. Next a Side Bridge on knees was held for 10 seconds each side for three sets. Then the Dead Bug Beginner: with arm above head, supine with same leg bent with foot on floor, other knee comes up and touches opposite hand coming from above, then switch, all while abdominal bracing and not holding the breath. 10 times three sets. Then Post Isometric Relaxation (PIR) was performed on the quads-hams-adductors- gastrocs-soleus-iliopsoas piriformis and gluteals, with the patient comfortable, with muscle passively lengthened to the slight resistance barrier, patient contracts the muscle with minimal effort against resistance for 10 seconds while breathing in, and then let out and relax. This was repeated 3 to 5 times until no new barrier was met for each group. In addition, Deep muscular manual therapy techniques of ischemic pressure, and stroking massage using the elbow, was applied to the right piriformis and gluteus muscles, and QL for up to 7 seconds. It was then released and repeated at different locations of the tightened trigger points of these muscles. The patient was explained that this deep pressure may be very painful and to not allow the level to pass their tolerance threshold. LASER therapy was applied on the right piriformis muscle, QL on the right and left trigger point areas at L4 and L5 region, and medial superior right SI joint region using a 910nm Superpulsed system, with a 250W peak and 2W average power to stimulates growth factors effecting gene expression, which is necessary for remodeling and formation of healthy tissue. This device also has the ability to penetrate deeper into the tissue because of its power density, wavelength, and delivery properties. 1344 Joules were delivered in a total area of 90 cm2 for a dose or energy density of 15 J/cm2 at the surface over 15 minutes. (S8948). He is recommended to attempt to do all of these routines and stretches gently at home. He was given a roll for the mid back to take home so he could work on the mid back at home. The patient was confident in doing the perfect form and repetition and was given my cell phone number for any questions. He should use ice as directed previously for any pain or flare-ups. At the 12th visit-no spinal adjustment was needed, and the patient was ready for additional intensity but still in the transitional phase of care. PNF techniques of Post-Facilitation Stretch (PFS) were initiated on the quads-hams/biceps femoris-gastrocs-soleus-iliopsoas-glutes and TFL/ITB. Care was used to assure patient comfort, and although he was instructed to contract with near maximum effort, pain should not increase past his average pain levels of 4. He promised not to go too hard with this stretch technique to avoid straining himself. The patient was then instructed to push against my body on each muscle treated, and breathe in slowly (respiratory synkinesis) while resisting on my count of 10 seconds, and have his eyes look (visual synkinesis) into the direction of his contraction. He then was told to completely relax and let go, as the muscle was stretched to the new barrier for 15-20 seconds, and he had his eyes look into the direction of the stretch. He relaxed for another 20-30 seconds and repeated each muscle 4 times. He continued then with breathing exercises for 6 to 8 minutes in the office, while stretching supine on a gym ball with the patient’s arms extended above his head, and then out to the sides stretching the pectoralis muscles and extending the thoracic hyperkyphosis. Again, the importance of proper breathing methods through the abdomen extending outward on inhaling, and that the ribs should come out laterally on inhaling and the shoulders should be relaxed with breathing and not be rising, were all reviewed. He was explained that with all exercises, the object is to never do a bad repetition, in order to prevent creating a bad motor pattern. Stop at a bad rep and do more sets of fewer repetitions. Next the patient stands looking in the mirror (for awareness) holding perfect posture and Abdominal Hollowing with small foot for 15 seconds at a time and this technique was repeated for three sets. This began with expected and unexpected perturbations while standing in this position. Then this was performed with the eyes of the patient closed, trying to assist him with proprioception, and balance while standing on two feet with awareness and perturbations trying to maintain the posture. He was then instructed to lay supine on a foam roll in the vertical position with arms to the side for 2 minutes, and then up above the head for 2 minutes. Next, He was instructed to lay supine on a foam roll in the horizontal position, and roll back and forth on the thoracic spine working the myofascial adhesions of the lower thoracic, and the hyperkyphosis of the upper back for 2 minutes. The patient also began rolling with perfect form, and breathing and bracing on the TFL to release some trigger points and tightness of this soft tissue for 2 minutes. Next the Cat-Camel was performed for 6 to 8 minutes accentuating the correct breathing, and reinforcing the tightening of the core as described previously. Quadruped Bracing was performed as described previously with expected and unexpected perturbations for 4 minutes. Next, a Side Bridge on the feet (instead of the knees) was held for 15 seconds each side for three sets. Dead Bug Second Progression was performed with the arm above head, supine with both knees at 90 degrees, other knee comes up and touches opposite hand coming from above, then switch, all while abdominal bracing and not holding breath, 10 times bilaterally; three sets. Deep muscular manual therapy techniques of ischemic pressure and stroking massage (using the elbow) was continued to be applied as previously described. LASER therapy was continued and performed as described above. A re-evaluation of previous positive maneuvers, as well as a reassessment of functional performance, was performed on the 17th visit of 03/09/11. Some of the results are included in Table1, Table 2, and Table 3. In addition, a Par-Q Form was filled out by the claimant to assess cardiovascular risks for which, allowed us to proceed with the YMCA 3 minute Bench Step Test. He was able to complete the assessment for which, the total visit took 2 hours to complete. On the 18th visit, 03/11/11-we began Active Care. The patient was instructed to continue to perform all the previous exercises at home during the off days. He is also asked to continue the cardio routine at home on his off day that was started today in the office, with the same level of intensity and time. He is also to attempt—with perfect form—the new exercises he was taught. The patient started at a 5 minute slow pace on the bicycle, and then increased the pace for 20 minutes maintaining his target heart rate of 142 bpm and then a 5 minute cool down. He was rated as below average on the YMCA 3 minute Bench Step Test on the assessment. Therefore, he was started at 60% for aerobic training for 20 minutes, and will be progressed up slowly to 80% for 20 minutes over the next several weeks as his fitness levels allow. The Karvonen Method Formula: (220 – age) – (RHR) X (% intensity) + (RHR) = HR target. This patient: 220 -39age = 181HRmax 181HRmax – 83HR rest =98 98 X 60% = 58.8 58.8 + 83HRrest = 141.8 HR target
By this time, the patient had mastered the Cat-Camel, Dead Bug, Mirror Image Posture, Side Bridging, Quadruped Bracing, Breathing Techniques, and has improved in his flexibility; he was able to explain that with all exercises, the object is to never do a bad repetition in order to not create a bad motor pattern. Stop at a bad rep and do more sets of fewer repetitions. He was instructed to continue this routine and use it as part of his warm up before entering the office, and also to perform this routine and all stretches daily. The active rehabilitation routine utilized is listed in Table 4. This rehabilitation routine was progressed slowly over each visit from the 18th visit to the 27th visit, with increased repetitions, sets, and/or resistance. It includes other increases in challenges such as, eyes being closed as indicated in the routine. He stretched and performed one hour of the exercises, and 20 minutes of cardio on his off days from this office, and used ice after all sessions for 15 minutes as previously directed. He was seen 3 visits a week of Monday, Wednesday and Friday until the 27th visit.
On the Final Evaluation, which was the 27th visit, the patient was discharged from active care and told to return in one month. He was stronger and thinner; had better posture and had nearly no back pain. At this point, it was deemed that he would do very well continuing to strengthen his back on his own. The patient should continue to perform all the exercises he was taught in this office, 3 times a week, as a home maintenance program. This would also include his cardio exercise as well. He was also prescribed a general multiple vitamin pack. This is in addition to the fish oil and niacin that he was still taking. He was no longer taking the soft tissue support pack for the last four weeks. He was instructed to reduce one fish oil capsule per day that he has been taking, because this new pack has one in it. He will reduce the niacin in four weeks, titrating down. He will visit his MD within the next four weeks, and have a complete physical and blood workup performed. He returned to work, and was recommended to return here in four weeks for a check-up to see how going back to work affected his back. He may also return to the office PRN (as needed) for any flare-ups, regressions, or reoccurrence of his lumbar condition. On the one month follow- up, the 28th visit, the patient was released and discharge. The patient has done a great job keeping up with the exercises. He looks great and he should return as needed for any tune-ups or flare-ups of any pain. If his condition deteriorates and functions decrease, if his symptoms reoccur, or after his home treatment fails to give relief, he may return for any nutrition purchases. The patient understood the importance of continuing the home plan of exercises with perfect form and proper breathing.
Results/Outcome of Care:
|Key: *right now, average, best, worst listed, PF=Physical Function, BP=Bodily Pain, EF=Energy Fatigue|
|Quadruple Visual Analog Scale*||9,9,8,9||6,6,5,7||2,3,2,5||0,1,0,2|
|Health Status Questionnaire-(Rand)/SF 36||PF-60||PF-90|
|Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire||18/24||11/24||6/24||1/24|
|Revised Oswestry Back Disability Quest.||39/50||22/50||13/50||5/50|
|Motrin Medication Intake||14x’s/week||2x’s/week||1x/week||0x’s/week|
|Height||71 inches||71.75 inches|
|Resting Heart Rate||90bpm||83bpm||75bpm|
at 60% and then 80%
|*Lumbar Spine Mobility Listed as Flexion, Extension, Lateral Bending Right, Lateral Bending Left (AMA normal values)|
|**Normal Values referenced from Rehabilitation of the Spine, A Practitioner’s Manual, 2nd Ed., Craig Liebenson, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins|
|YMCA 3 Minute Bench Step Test||116bpm; below average||101bpm above average|
|Lumbar Spine Mobility/ROM*||30, 10, 10,10||40, 15, 15, 20||45, 20, 20, 25||55, 25, 25, 25||60+, 25, 25, 25|
|Over Head Squat Test||Score: 0; Fail; Pain||Score: 1; Difficult||Score 3|
|One Legged Standing Test||Score: 0; Fail; 4 secs /open; 0 sec/closed||Score: 1; Difficult; 15 secs /open; 6 secs /closed||Score: 2; some compensation; 30 secs /open; 20 secs /closed|
|Lunge Test:||Score: 1; Difficult||Score: 1-2; Borderline||Score: 3; No Compensation|
|Janda Hip Extension Test||Score: 0; improper sequence; twisting/weak||Score: 1; Weak Glute||Score: 3; Correct Sequence/Normal Glute Max Strength|
|Janda Hip Abduction and Coordination Test||Score: 1; Severe Hip Hike; ext. Rotation||Score: 2; Overactive QL/Piriformis||Score: 3; Normal|
|Side Bridge Endurance Test||Score: 0; Pain; 10 secs||Score:2-35 secs/no LBP/Compensation||Score: 2; held 75 secs; slight compensation **/84.5 ave.|
|Sit and Reach Test||Score: 2; 7 inch mark||Score: 2; 9 inch mark||Score: 3; 12 inch mark/10-16 mark|
|Trunk Flexor||2/50||10/50||35/50reps ; Ave. 27 +/- 14|
|Repetitive Arch Ups||6/50||15/50||30/50reps; Ave. 28 +/- 14|
|Squat Endurance/Repetitive||9/50||18/50||40/50reps; Ave. 37 +/- 12.5|
|Sorenson’s/Static Trunk||30/240||65/240||99/240sec; Ave. 97 +/- 56|
|Deep Neck Flexion||Retraction of chin in the prone, seated or standing position to assist with forward head posture; with nodding the head without and then with resistance with a small gym ball and or head harness or band||Sets of 10 to 20 reps to patient abilities|
|Push Ups||On fists, chin tucked, neutral spine, protraction of shoulders, activate all stabilizers, feet dorsiflexed||5 reps; add reps, add rocking, rotation, and tripod|
|Scapulo-Thoracic Facilitation||In the side lying position, activate scapula stabilizers, patient brings back scapula and shoulder to where the doctor directs||Start with 10 reps each side and then increase|
|McGill Curl Up Lumbar Stabilization||No head jutting, only perform after activation of abdominal bracing, breathing and bracing concurrently, hold and breath multiple times starting with the one leg bent, elbows on the floor, hand behind lumbar spine, upper spine moves only, no lumbar spine movement; progress to elbows off floor and/or both legs bent; then fingers curled next to ears, then adding trunk rotation.||Start with 10 reps and increase to multiple sets of higher reps|
|Cook Hip Lift Lumbar Stabilization||Supine; The focus should be on engaging the hip extensors. Pull one knee towards the chest as much as possible to engage the opposite hip extensors (as opposed to overusing the lumbar extensors)||Hold 10 secs each side; increase secs held /sets|
|Side Bridge McGill Lumbar||Side lying on feet (top in front) and propped up with forearm, square pelvis so no sag, abdominal brace||3 sets of 10 secs with Roll Over and increase|
|Prone Bridge McGill Lumbar||Prone; propped up with both forearms, square pelvis so no sag, abdominal brace, chin tuck; progress from two feet to one foot, and lift other leg up and hold||3 sets of 10 secs and then increased over time|
|Supine Bridge||Maintaining co-contraction including glut max, raising buttocks off the floor, then sacrum, lower lumbar, and upper lumbar spine. Then lower the spine down to the floor with the coccyx last to touch||Hold 10 secs, longer; 2 legs to 1 leg, then ball|
|Superman||On floor, both feet supporting on wall/floor, brace, keep spine neutral, extending the hips, not spine and lift arms up; both hands out, also sideways; hold 3 seconds/10 reps/3 sets||Progress in hold time, reps, sets, and then to gym ball|
|Gym Ball Lumbar Extension||Lay prone on ball, feet on floor, torso hanging off; lumbar extensions, 3 sets of 10 reps, hold each rep for 3 secs.||Progress in reps and sets and hold time|
|Bird Dog||Quadruped; chin tuck, breath, brace and hold, check for abnormal external rotation of hip and lumbar hyperextension, should be neutral then one arm/other leg; hold 3 secs; progress to under touches/ball||3 sets of 10; increase sets, reps, hold time; touches|
|Standing Lunges||Patient steps forward onto Stability Trainer-(green-firm then blue and then black) with perfect erect posture; knee &hip at 90 degrees, then returns to stand; alternate legs; progress to weights on shoulders||3 sets of 15; progress in sets/ reps/colors/lb’s|
|Wall Squat with Gym Ball||Abdominal Brace; Stand with back, shoulders, and head even and straight, leaning against the ball and look straight ahead. Keep shoulders relaxed and feet 1 foot away from the ball and a shoulder’s width apart. Keep head straight, roll down the wall with the ball, lowering the buttocks toward the floor until the thighs are almost parallel to the floor. Hold this position for 10 seconds. Make sure to tighten the thigh muscles while slowly sliding back up to the starting position.||3 sets of 10; progress with time in lowered position, sets, reps, and dumbbells on shoulders|
|Balance Training on Rocker Board||Small foot and subtalar neutral maintained, abdominal hollowing, patient should maintain controlled rocking on the board with ankle joint without bending at the waist; start with 3 minutes and increase.||Progressing to multiple angles eyes closed and round board|
The fact that obesity contributes to higher levels of inflammation and to causing additional abnormal forces on the motor and biomechanical systems, cannot be ignored. A leg length deficiency contributes to uneven forces on the spine structure; often a convexity of the lumbar spine on the same side; and in many cases should be progressively leveled to prevent or slow down the process of boney deformation, osteophytes and syndesmophytes. Joint and tissue mobility and flexibility is the foundation of any rehabilitation protocol and must be attained in order to progress into restoring stability to a weakened and unstable lumbar spine. Chiropractic Manipulative Treatment/Chiropractic Adjustments/Spinal Manipulation is the most researched mode of treatment for low back pain. This of course is the staple of the practice of chiropractic in restoring joint mobility and reduction of the kinesiopathophysiological component of the subluxation complex. Proper functional testing and measurements are key components to the documentation process. This testing and measuring will validate that conservative chiropractic rehabilitation protocols is cost effective with outcomes that not only produce resolution of the abnormal spinal condition, and progress a patient to normal status compared with referenced normal data, but also for the resolution of systemic health conditions that if ignored may require the inveterate use of medications. These outcomes will then possibly confirm that chiropractors are more than qualified to be primary care physicians, not only on health plans but on workers’ compensation plans, including wellness models of healthcare. Nutritional supplementation and cardiovascular fitness is also imperative when attempting to improve a patient’s general health. Proper circulation to the soft tissue with oxygen and micro and macronutrients is required for any successful rehabilitation and conditioning protocol. Finally, with the advances in technology, there are LASER devices which are FDA cleared in the United States that are available with a 910nm wavelength that have the ability to penetrate into the deeper target tissues of the spine with adequate power density to initiate the biostimulatory effects and accelerate the healing process. The practicing chiropractor, depending on his or her practice style, philosophy of practice, state regulatory practice acts, and education have the ability to utilize more than one modality to assist the patient to become well, not just in the spine, but the whole body, and without the need of pharmaceuticals.
This clinical case study did not have a post MRI performed after the treatment was finished. This would have been beneficial to access if the chiropractic manipulation/adjustment, rehabilitation protocols, and laser therapy assisted in the reduction of protrusion size. Thus, resulting in the beneficial results that were seen or if it was just from the improved stability, mobility,
strength and global alignment. Since this patient was self paying for his treatment, ordering another MRI in a pain-free subject may have been difficult. There are also limitations in general when treating this type of chronic condition, because of the amount of treatment time required each visit to accomplish the goal. The typical physician or therapist does not always get reimbursed by third party payers adequately for the hour or more that these visits actually lasted to make it financially feasible to perform on all patients. Furthermore, instead of being impressed with the provider, the third party payer may interpret the amount of effort by the provider as overutilization, making the documentation of the case much more important. Dedicating an hour of time one on one with the patient can be very difficult in a typical practice, which is why so many therapists and physicians often utilize more passive modalities which do not require constant attendance, but do not usually give a long lasting result.
In general terms, case reports should not be generalized beyond the context of a particular case for a larger population of patients. Also, the natural progression of a condition or dysfunction may also explain the results experienced in patient care. This case study submitted, that happened to have stellar results for only one patient with long term reoccurring low back pain and sciatic radiculitis from a documented disc herniation, will hopefully stimulate more large scale studies and utilize multi-mode procedures instead of a single mode procedure. Most of these types of case studies attempt to establish the “best” single treatment; however, the “best” treatment may actually be performing everything that will restore the patient to whole body full function and wellness, not just treating the pain or the assumed source of pain.
This case study was completed in part for the purpose of a requirement for board certification by the American Chiropractic Rehabilitation Board. The learning process and the assistance from the instructors such a George Petruska, DC was invaluable to me. The professionalism of the testing process and the staff and members of the ACRB was an example for all to follow. I am grateful for the opportunity to be a part of it.
Funding sources and potential conflicts of interest:
No funding sources or conflicts of interest were reported for this study.
- Cassidy J D, Research Associate, Department of Orthopedics, University Hospital, University of Sockatchervan. An overview of the problem of low back pain D.C. Tracts1989; 1:345-356.
- Meade T W, Dyers S, Browne W, Townsend J, Frank A 0.Low back pain of mechanical origin: randomized comparison of chiropractic and hospital outpatient treatment. British Medical Journal 1590; 256:1431-1437.
- Deyo R A, Tsui-WI YJ. Descriptive Epidemiology of low back pain and its related medical care in the United States. Spine 1587; 12:246-268.
- Gilbert Jr, et al. Clinical trial of common treatments for low back pain in family practice, British Medical Journal 1585; 291:791-754.
- Cherkin D C, Mackornack F A, Berg A 0. Managing low back pain – a comparison of the beliefs and behaviors of family physicians and chiropractors. Western Journal of Medicine 1388; 149:475-480.
- Biering-Soiensen F. Physical measurements as risk indicators for low back trouble over a one-year period. Spine 1589; 9:106.
- Mayer T G, Gatechel R J, Kishino N, et al. Objective assessment of spine functioning following industrial injury; a prospective study with comparison group and one-year follow-up. Spine 1985; 10:482-453.
- K D Christensen. Rehabilitation guidelines for chiropractic. Chiropractic Rehabilitation Association 1992; l (edition):3-4.
- Mayer T G, Smith, Keeley J. Mooney V. Quantification of lumbar function; part II: sagittal plan trunk strength in chronic low back pain patients. Spine 1985; 10:765-772.
- Beimborn D S, Morrisey M C. A review of the literature related too trunk muscle performance. Spine 1988; 13:655660.
- Jinkins J R, Whittemore A R, Bradley W G. The anatomic basis of vertebrogenic pain and the autonomic syndrome associated with lumbar disc extrusion. American Journal of Neuroradiology 1989; 152:1277-1289.
- Hiering-Sorensen F. Physical measurements as risk indicator for low back trouble over a one-year period. Spine 1989; 9:106.
- Hochschuler S Rehabilitation of the Spine: science and practice St. Louis MI Mosby 1993
- Liebenson C. Rehabilitation of the spine: a practitioner’s manual. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1995.
- Studde D. Spinal Rehabilitation Stamford, Conn. Appleton & Lange 1999
- 1996 peer reviewed journal publication “Physiotherapy-Rehab Guidelines for the Chiropractic Profession” from the Council on Physiological Therapeutics and Rehabilitation authored by Dr. K.D. Christensen, D.C., C.C.S.P., D.A.C.R.B.
- Richardson J Clinical Orthopedic Physical Therapy Philadelphia, Pa Saunders 1994
- Pettibon B Spinal Biomechanics Tacoma, WA Pettibon Biomechanics Institute Inc. 1989
- Jaskoviak PJ, Schafer RC. Applied physiotherapy: microcurrent therapy. J Chiropr 1993; 381-400.
- Andrews Physical Rehabilitation of the Injured Athlete Philadelphia, Pa Saunders 1991
- Magee D. Orthopedic Physical Assessment: second edition Philadelphia, Pa Saunders 1992
- Christensen KD. Chiropractic Rehabilitation: Protocols, vol. 1. Ridgefield, WA: Chiropractic Rehabilitation Association, 1991.
- Williams MH. Beyond Training Champaign, Ill Leisure Press 1989
- Christensen KD. Clinical Biomechanics. Roanoke, VA: Foot Levelers, Inc. 1984:171-268.
- Christensen KD. Clinical Chiropractic Orthopedics. Roanoke, VA: Foot Levelers, Inc. 1984:171-268.
- Hellerbrandt FA, Krikorvian AM. Cross education. J Appl Phys 1950;2.-446-452.
- Yeomans S. Clinical Application of Outcome Assessment. Stamford, Conn. Appelton & Lange 2000
- Gray H. Gray’s anatomy. 15th ed. (T.P. Pick, B. Howden, ed.). New York: Crown Publishers, 1977:259-266.
- McGill Stuart Low Back Disorders Human Kinetics 2002
- Liebenson C. Rehabilitation of the spine: a practitioner’s manual. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 2005
- Morris C Low back Syndromes Mcgraw Hill 2005
- Haldeman S Principals of Practice Mcgraw Hill 2006
- Baechile & Earle Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning Human Kinetics: NSCA 2008
- Cook Gray Movement On Target Publications 2010
- Hode L, Tuner J., The New Laser Therapy Handbook, Prima Books AB, Grangesburg, Sweden, 2010
- Karu, Tiina, Ten Lectures on Basic Science of Laser Phototherapy, Prima Books AB, Grangesburg, Sweden, 2007
- BenEliyahu DJ., Magnetic resonance imaging and clinical follow-up: study of 27 patients receiving chiropractic care for cervical and lumbar disc herniations, J Manipulative Physiol Ther., 1996 Nov-Dec;19(9):597-606
- Wilco C. H. Jacobs, Maurits van Tulder, et al., Surgery versus conservative management of sciatica due to a lumbar herniated disc: a systematic review Eur Spine J. 2011 April; 20(4): 513–522. Published online 2010 October 15.
- Hahne, Andrew J., Ford, Jon J., McMeeken, Joan M., Conservative management of lumbar disc herniation with associated radiculopathy: a systematic review, Spine (2010) Volume: 35, Issue: 11, Pages: E488-E504
If you are an active ACA Rehab Council member in good standing, on Monday, Jan. 21st, 2013, you will be receiving an e-mail from Josh Damon, Corporate Affairs Assistant of the ACA, with respect to the proposed ACA Rehab Council Bylaws Amendment, Article XVIII (the proposed Amendment and the Rationale for this Amendment can be found below. The Rationale is in italics). The Bylaws Amendment has the full support of your Rehab Council Executive Committee and has been reviewed by our Rehab Council Liaison, Dr. Kelli Pearson, as well as ACA Legal Counsel Tom Daly. In addition, it has been approved as written (see below) by ACA Bylaws Chairperson Dr. Karen Konarski-Hart and past ACA Bylaws Chairperson, Dr. David Herd.
The e-mail from Josh will have a link that you will be able to click on in order to cast your “yes” or “no” vote. Only active ACA Rehab Council members who are in good standing and have paid their 2013 dues are eligible to vote. Thank you for taking the time to cast your vote.
Proposed ACA Rehab Council Article XVIII – Establishment of a College
“In accordance with its objective to promote scientific research directly related to all aspects
of physiologic therapeutics and rehabilitation with particular attention directed towards
chiropractic and multi- disciplinary network approach, the ACA Rehab Council President
may, upon a two-thirds (2/3) majority vote of the members at a regular or special meeting
called for that purpose, appoint a College which will be governed by its own Bylaws which
will not be in conflict with the Rehab Council Bylaws or those rules and regulations set
forth by the ACA, and which will consist of a group of chiropractic doctors with a specific
academic and clinical focus that can be viewed as complementary to the specialty of
rehabilitation. The College shall aid in providing scientific, academic and clinical guidance
and research to the ACA Rehabilitation Council complementary to the field of rehabilitation.”
Register for an ACRB Rehab Review scheduled on one of two weekends; either Jan. 19th & 20th, 2013 or Feb. 2nd & 3rd, 2013. Both reviews are held in Pennsburg, PA.
For questions, contact Gene at 610-304-8471.
ACRB Rehabilitation Review Series 2 Day Program
2791 Geryville Pike Pennsburg,
PA 18073 (215) 679-3419
Come prepare with us with a comprehensive review and mock oral exam!
ACRB Certified Lead Instructors:
Chad Buhol DC DACRB
George Petrusksa DC, DACRB
Gene Serafim DC DACRB
Hampton Inn Quakertown
￼1915 John Fries Highway, Quakertown, PA
Comfort Inn & Suite
1905 John Fries Highway Quakertown, PA 18951
Holiday Inn Express Hotel & Suites Quakertown
1918 John Fries Highway Quakertown, PA 18951
Respond to Eugeneserafim@yahoo.com to ensure availability, Cost $299. for 12 hour module. ACRB credit available upon request. Questions; contact Gene 6103048471
Topics to be covered include:
- Establishing Baselines for local muscle endurance, aerobic potential, flexibility and more
- Strength progressions and regressions
- Acute, Subacute and Chronic protocols and phases of healing
- The abridged Certified Strength and Conditioning Program
- Functional Analysis systems including the FMS, SFMA, MAG 7 and 4×4 Matrix
- Muscle Energy Techniques
- Functional Anatomy
- Condition Specific Protocols
- Outcomes Assessments Review
- Sparing Strategies
- Postural Syndromes
- Qualitative vs. Quantitative analysis
- Mock Skills and Comprehensive Exams
When: Feb. 9th & 10th, 2013
Where: Rocky Hill, CT
Become Board Certified in Rehabilitation
12 module program satisfying the lecture/workshop requirement leading to Diplomate Status in the
American Chiropractic Rehabilitation Board®
February 9th and 10th, 2013
Rehabilitation of the Lumbar Spine
Connecticut Chiropractic Association
2257 Silas Deane Highway
Rocky Hill, Ct. 60067
This module presents the best available evidence to support evaluation, rehabilitation and implementation principles for treating the lumbar spine. Static posture analysis, lower body stretching, as well as functional anatomy and the management of low back pain will be taught. An introduction to basic rehabilitation principles, advanced assessment of motor control, and body weight exercises will also be offered.
Chad Buohl, DC, DACRB
Eugene Seraphim, DC, DACRB
Mitchell B. Green, DC, DACRB
George Petruska, DC, DACRB
To register, contact NYCC Post Graduate Department at (800) 434-3955 ext. 132, or online at www.nyccpostgrad.com. Cost is $299 per module ($349 when paid less than 7 days prior to the first seminar date of the month). For course and program information, contact Mitch Green, DC, DACRB at (212) 269-0300. Contact the ACRB for additional online material and testing requirements at firstname.lastname@example.org.
License Renewal: Appropriate applications relating to credit hours for license renewal in selected states have been executed for these programs. For information regarding these applications, please contact the NYCC Postgraduate Department at 800 -434-3955. The presence of a speaker or an exhibitor at a NYCC-sponsored or co-sponsored program does not represent an endorsement by NYCC, nor is the presence of a product at a NYCC-sponsored program to be construed as a product endorsement or a testimonial by NYCC as to the quality of the product.
Description: Functional assessments and exercise are used as treatment of acute and chronic pain. The use of exercise is part of case management strategies and continues to be in the forefront of appropriate and safe use. Practitioners will learn assessments that will guide your corrective exercise selection and help you in the management in patients’ care.
Instructor: Jeffrey Tucker, DC, Diplomate American Chiropractic Rehabilitation Board. ACA Rehab Chiropractor of the year 2012.
Audiences: Chiropractors, Physical Therapists, Personal Trainers, students of same
Jerrold Simon, DC, DACRB
Excellence is our Goal
In about a month we will all be starting a new year. Each of us will bring our own set of aspirations, hopes desires and goals with us as that new year unfolds. As far as the ACA Rehab Council is concerned, we’ve already established our goal for 2013 which can be summarized in one word, “EXCELLENCE”.
Since its founding approx. 20 years ago, the Rehab Council has followed its path along a proud tradition of principled leadership and service to its members. Unlike some of the other Councils within the ACA, the Rehab Council is not fraught with internal problems, divisiveness and argumentation. We as a Council know and understand that though we may sometimes disagree with each other, we all agree that our Council is made stronger, more productive and more responsive to our members when we work together in unity, cooperation and mutual respect for each other. We are also blessed with an associated Rehab Board, the ACRB, who works with our Council in mutual regard to maintain a joint approach which focuses on the promotion of the common good of our Council members and Diplomate holders. In short, in the words of Dr. George Petruska, here at the Rehab Council, “We don’t do smack and we don’t tolerate those who do.”
This year, the ACA Rehab Council elected its new Executive Committee. After six years of distinguished service to the Rehab Council as its President, Dr. George Petruska now carries the mantle of Past President. However, he remains a viable member of the Rehab Council as Chairman of the Symposium Vendor Procurement Committee. Because of Dr. Petruska and others like him, our annual symposium continues to grow in stature, attendance and academics as one of the leaders in post graduate education in the field of Rehabilitation.
Dr. Alfred Garbutt has been voted in as Vice President of the ACA Rehab Council. Besides filling in for the President in the event of his absence, Dr. Garbutt continues to edit the Journal of the North American Rehab Specialist while also maintaining the Council website found on the web at www.ccptr.org. Both the Journal and the website continue to grow in influence while helping to keep the Rehab Council member and Diplomate apprised of the latest research in the field of rehabilitation while also informing the Rehab Council member on postgraduate opportunities and the various goings on of the Rehab Council.
Our newest member to the Rehab Council Executive Committee is Dr. Jeff Tucker. For those of you who have had the pleasure of listening to him lecture, you know that Dr. Tucker is “a wealth of practical rehab oriented knowledge.” In addition, he is well known and well regarded in the field of rehabilitation with connections in academia that help to keep our Council at the cutting edge of the science of rehabilitation. Dr. Tucker has now taken on the duties of Secretary/Treasurer. It’s no wonder he has been chosen for this duty. With his successful practice and educational lecture series combined with his family business of owning and operating many successful Southern California restaurants, our Rehab Council Account couldn’t be in better hands.
Our Rehab Council also has the benefit of the many years of experience of Past President Dr. Don Fedoryk and his assistant Dr. Mitch Green as Convention Chair and Co-Chair respectively. More than any other persons, these Rehab Council members have been instrumental in attracting the best speakers in the field of rehab while coordinating one of the best run Specialty Council Symposiums in the American Chiropractic Association. It is no wonder why the ACA often praises the Rehab Council at their annual HOD meetings and during the annual NCLC (National Chiropractic Legislative Conference) Washington, D.C. meetings.
As of this year, the ACA Rehab Council has also added four advisors to assist the Rehab Council Executive Committee in carrying out its duties. Lee Burton, PhD, ATC, CSCS will assist the Executive Committee in educating Council members as to the importance of functional movement analysis. Craig Morris, DC, DACRB will act as an exceptional resource with respect the association between lower back syndromes and spinal rehabilitation. Michael Schneider, DC, PT, PhD will provide insight with respect to a rehabilitation suite which incorporates physical therapy modalities as well as licensed Physical Therapists. And finally, Kim Christiansen, DC, DACRB, as the Founder of the ACA Council on Rehabilitation, will provide a historical perspective necessary for a focal vision essential to the continued growth of our Rehab Council. We will also profit from the continued assistance of our Liaison, Kelly Pearson, DC, DABCO, who provides an invaluable link between the Rehab Council and the ACA Board of Governors and other Executive Leaders in the American Chiropractic Association.
Finally, all of us can be proud of the Rehab Council’s commitment to excellence with respect to our ever growing, mindfully relevant and increasingly pertinent annual Rehab Symposiums. The 2013 Rehab Symposium will take place at the Walt Disney Swan Resort in Orlando on April 19th – 21st and is shaping up to be the BEST yet. Howard Israel, DDS, PhD will present recent research on TMJ inflammatory & degenerative disorders. Jeff Spencer, MA, DC will address body holism as the key link in resolving difficult musculoskeletal problems. Thomas Michaud will present an overview of the latest research evaluating 3-D motion during the gait cycle relating this to improved examination and treatment techniques. And Michael Schneider, DC, PhD together with Sean Mathers, DC, DPT, DACRB, CSCS will address principles of post-surgical rehabilitation protocols of the spine, shoulder and knee.
The Rehab Council is also committed to expanding its purview and its scientific basis. With this in mind the Executive Committee called for and received majority vote approval by the membership to include the IBE (International Board of Electrodiagnosis) as a recognized certifying organization under the auspices of the ACA Rehab Council and the discerning eye of the ACRB. This is in keeping with the medical model which has incorporated its Electrodiagnosis Board under the auspices of the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Board.
In short, as your President, I continue to seek membership suggestions and input to help us reach our goal of Excellence. Ultimately, it is you, our members, who will continue to propel our growth as a Council in meeting and exceeding expectations as the leader in chiropractic physiological therapeutics and rehabilitation.
In chiropractic service,
Jerrold J. Simon, DC, DACRB
President, ACA Rehab Council
Become Board Certified in Rehabilitation
12 module program satisfying the course requirement leading to Diplomate Status in the
American Chiropractic Rehabilitation Board®
Starting October 6 and 7th, 2012 and continuing monthly at the
Westford Regency Inn & Conference Center Westford, MA 01886 ~ (978) 692-8200
Enjoy the benefits of certification!!!
- Join the fastest growing chiropractic specialty and transform your practice immediately
- Hands on training! Learn in depth analysis, evaluation and appropriately prescribe corrective exercise and movement protocols
- The recognition of a nationally accredited specialty by attorneys, insurance companies and fellow DCs
- Catapult your practice into a higher realm of service.
- Learn to initiate, manage and document patient care utilizing rehab protocols and guidelines and therefore effectively insulate your practice from Post Payment Audits!!
- George Petruska, DC, DACRB ~ Lead instructor
- Mitchell B. Green, DC, DACRB ~ Associate Instructor
- Chad Buohl, DC, DACRB ~ Associate Instructor
- Eugene Seraphim, DC, DACRB ~ Associate Instructor
To register, contact NYCC Post Graduate Department at (800) 434-3955 ext. 132. Cost is $299 per module ($349 when paid less than 14 days prior to the first seminar date of the month). For course and program information, contact Mitch Green, DC, DACRB at (212) 269-0300. Contact the ACRB for additional online material and testing requirements at email@example.com . Please contact NYCC Post Graduate Dept at 800-434-3955.
This program is co-sponsored by the Massachusetts Chiropractic Society and New York Chiropractic College. Appropriate applications relating to credit hours for license renewal in selected states have been executed for these classes. license **renewal in selected states has been executed for these programs. Please contact NYCC Post Graduate Dept at 800-434-3955
Become Board Certified in Rehabilitation
12 module program satisfying the course requirement leading to Diplomate Status in the
American Chiropractic Rehabilitation Board®
Starting October 6 and 7th, 2012 and continuing monthly at the
Westford Regency Hotel – Westford, MA 01886
$299.99/module Ph (978)692-8200
Enjoy the benefits of certification!!!
- Join the fastest growing chiropractic specialty and transform your practice immediately
- Hands on training! Learn in depth analysis, evaluation and appropriately prescribe corrective exercise and movement protocols
- The recognition of a nationally accredited specialty by attorneys, insurance companies and fellow DCs
- Catapult your practice into a higher realm of service.
- Learn to initiate, manage and document patient care utilizing rehab protocols and guidelines and therefore effectively insulate your practice from Post Payment Audits!!
George Petruska, DC, DACRB Lead instructor
Mitchell B. Green, DC, DACRB Associate instructor
Chad Buohl, DC, DACRB Associate Instructor
Eugene Seraphim, DC, DACRB Associate Instructor
To register, contact NYCC Post Graduate Department at (800) 434-3955 ext. 132. Cost is $299 per module ($349 when paid less than 14 days prior to the first seminar date of the month). For course and program information, contact Mitch Green, DC, DACRB at (212) 269-0300. Contact the ACRB for additional online material and testing requirements at firstname.lastname@example.org. these programs. Please contact NYCC Post Graduate Dept at 800-434-3955
* This program is co-sponsored by the Mass. Chiropractic Society and New York Chiropractic College. Appropriate applications relating to credit hours for license renewal in selected states have been executed for these classes. license
** Renewal in selected states has been executed for these programs. Please contact NYCC Post Graduate Dept at 800-434-3955
To our California Rehab Council Members:
For those of you who use cold lasers in your practice please go to the following link to become aware of the new regulations just adopted by the California Board of Chiropractic Examiners in regards to the use of lasers.